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WAM BAM - Recovering Web Tokens From Office

This post looks at the recent trend of pulling Azure tokens from Office process memory and tries to identify just how these tokens were loaded, how Office handles a Microsoft Account (MSA), and how we can recover cached credentials from the Token Broker Cache.

g_CiOptions in a Virtualized World

With the leaking of code signing certificates and exploits for vulnerable drivers becoming common occurrences, adversaries are adopting the kernel as their new playground. And with Microsoft making technologies like Virtualization Based Security (VBS) and Hypervisor Code Integrity (HVCI) available, I wanted to take some time to understand just how vulnerable endpoints are when faced with an attacker set on escaping to Ring-0.


In this post, we'll dig into just how SMB over QUIC works, answer some of the immediate questions around which attacks are feasible, and show how we can repurpose some existing tooling to capture NTLM handshakes.

Object Overloading

In this post we are going to look at one such technique that I thought was cool while playing around with the Windows Object Manager, and which should allow us to load an arbitrary DLL of our creation into a Windows process during initial execution, something that I've been calling "Object Overloading" for reasons which will hopefully become apparent in this post.

Weird Ways to Run Unmanaged Code in .NET

Recently I've been looking at the .NET CLR internals and wanted to understand what further techniques may be available for executing unmanaged code from the managed runtime. This post contains a snipped of some of the weird techniques that I found.

Azure Application Proxy C2

In this post, we are going to look at the Application Proxy protocol, how it works, and show how we can recreate enough functionality to allow us to create a custom inbound proxy into a client environment for our C2 traffic.

Tailoring Cobalt Strike on Target

We've all been there, you've completed your initial recon, sent in your emails to gather those leaked HTTP headers, spent an age configuring your malleable profile to be just right, set up your CDNs and spun up your redirectors. Then it's time, you send in your email aaaaaand... nothing.

Bring Your Own VM - Mac Edition

For a while I've wanted to explore the concept of leveraging a virtual machine on target during an engagement. The thought of having implant logic self-contained and running under a different OS to the base seems pretty interesting. But more so, I've been curious as to just how far traditional AV and EDR can go to detect malicious activity when running from a different virtual environment. While this is a nice idea, the issues with creating this type of malware are obvious, with increased comple...

The .NET Export Portal

While working on some tooling recently I revisited the topic of .NET unmanaged exports and wanted to know just why this works in the way that it does. After all, by now we've all seen the COM calls required to spin up the CLR, so what makes unmanaged exports so special?