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Today — 13 August 2022Main stream

Three flaws allow attackers to bypass UEFI Secure Boot feature

13 August 2022 at 09:39

Researchers discovered a flaw in three signed third-party UEFI boot loaders that allow bypass of the UEFI Secure Boot feature.

Researchers from hardware security firm Eclypsium have discovered a vulnerability in three signed third-party Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) boot loaders that can be exploited to bypass the UEFI Secure Boot feature.

Secure Boot is a security feature of the latest Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) 2.3.1 designed to detect tampering with boot loaders, key operating system files, and unauthorized option ROMs by validating their digital signatures. “Detections are blocked from running before they can attack or infect the system specification.”

UEFI Secure Boot

According to the experts, these three new bootloader vulnerabilities affect most of the devices released over the past 10 years, including x86-64 and ARM-based devices.

“These vulnerabilities could be used by an attacker to easily evade Secure Boot protections and compromise the integrity of the boot process;  enabling the attacker to modify the operating system as it loads, install backdoors, and disable operating system security controls.” reads the post published by the experts. “Much like our previous GRUB2 BootHole research, these new vulnerable bootloaders are signed by the Microsoft UEFI Third Party Certificate Authority. By default, this CA is trusted by virtually all traditional Windows and Linux-based systems such as laptops, desktops, servers, tablets, and all-in-one systems.”

Experts pointed out that these bootloaders are signed by the Microsoft UEFI Third Party Certificate Authority, the good news is that the IT giant has already addressed this flaw with the release of Patch Tuesday security updates for August 2020.

The flaws identified by the experts have been rated as:

  • CVE-2022-34301 – Eurosoft (UK) Ltd
  • CVE-2022-34302 – New Horizon Datasys Inc
  • CVE-2022-34303 – CryptoPro Secure Disk for BitLocker

The two CVE-2022-34301 and CVE-2022-34303 are similar in the way they involve signed UEFI shells, the first one the signed shell is esdiags.efi while for the third one (CryptoPro Secure Disk), the shell is Shell_Full.efi.

Threat actors can abuse built-in capabilities such as the ability to read and write to memory, list handles, and map memory, to allow the shell to evade Secure Boot. The experts warn that the exploitation could be easily automated using startup scripts, for this reason, it is likely that threat actors will attempt to exploit it in the wild.

“Exploiting these vulnerabilities requires an attacker to have elevated privileges (Administrator on Windows or root on Linux). However,  local privilege escalation is a common problem on both platforms. In particular, Microsoft does not consider UAC-bypass a defendable security boundary and often does not fix reported bypasses, so there are many mechanisms in Windows that can be used to elevate privileges from a non-privileged user to Administrator.” continues the post.

The exploitation of the New Horizon Datasys vulnerability (CVE-2022-34302) is more stealthy, system owners cannot detect the exploitation. The bootloader contains a built-in bypass for Secure Boot that can be exploited to disable the Secure Boot checks while maintaining the Secure Boot on.

“This bypass can further enable even more complex evasions such as disabling security handlers. In this case, an attacker would not need scripting commands, and could directly run arbitrary unsigned code. The simplicity of exploitation makes it highly likely that adversaries will attempt to exploit this particular vulnerability in the wild.” continues the post.

Experts highlighters that the exploitation of these vulnerabilities requires an attacker to have administrator privileges, which can be achieved in different ways.

“Much like BootHole, these vulnerabilities highlight the challenges of ensuring the boot integrity of devices that rely on a complex supply chain of vendors and code working together,” the post concludes. “these issues highlight how simple vulnerabilities in third-party code can undermine the entire process.”

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, UEFI Secure Boot)

The post Three flaws allow attackers to bypass UEFI Secure Boot feature appeared first on Security Affairs.

Yesterday — 12 August 2022Main stream

Process injection: breaking all macOS security layers with a single vulnerability

12 August 2022 at 00:00

If you have created a new macOS app with Xcode 13.2, you may noticed this new method in the template:

- (BOOL)applicationSupportsSecureRestorableState:(NSApplication *)app {
	return YES;
}

This was added to the Xcode template to address a process injection vulnerability we reported!

In macOS 12.0.1 Monterey, Apple fixed CVE-2021-30873. This was a process injection vulnerability affecting (essentially) all macOS AppKit-based applications. We reported this vulnerability to Apple, along with methods to use this vulnerability to escape the sandbox, elevate privileges to root and bypass the filesystem restrictions of SIP. In this post, we will first describe what process injection is, then the details of this vulnerability and finally how we abused it.

Process injection

Process injection is the ability for one process to execute code in a different process. In Windows, one reason this is used is to evade detection by antivirus scanners, for example by a technique known as DLL hijacking. This allows malicious code to pretend to be part of a different executable. In macOS, this technique can have significantly more impact than that due to the difference in permissions two applications can have.

In the classic Unix security model, each process runs as a specific user. Each file has an owner, group and flags that determine which users are allowed to read, write or execute that file. Two processes running as the same user have the same permissions: it is assumed there is no security boundary between them. Users are security boundaries, processes are not. If two processes are running as the same user, then one process could attach to the other as a debugger, allowing it to read or write the memory and registers of that other process. The root user is an exception, as it has access to all files and processes. Thus, root can always access all data on the computer, whether on disk or in RAM.

This was, in essence, the same security model as macOS until the introduction of SIP, also known as “rootless”. This name doesn’t mean that there is no root user anymore, but it is now less powerful on its own. For example, certain files can no longer be read by the root user unless the process also has specific entitlements. Entitlements are metadata that is included when generating the code signature for an executable. Checking if a process has a certain entitlement is an essential part of many security measures in macOS. The Unix ownership rules are still present, this is an additional layer of permission checks on top of them. Certain sensitive files (e.g. the Mail.app database) and features (e.g. the webcam) are no longer possible with only root privileges but require an additional entitlement. In other words, privilege escalation is not enough to fully compromise the sensitive data on a Mac.

For example, using the following command we can see the entitlements of Mail.app:

$ codesign -dvvv --entitlements - /System/Applications/Mail.app

In the output, we see the following entitlement:

...
	[Key] com.apple.rootless.storage.Mail
	[Value]
		[Bool] true
...

This is what grants Mail.app the permission to read the SIP protected mail database, while other malware will not be able to read it.

Aside from entitlements, there are also the permissions handled by Trust, Transparency and Control (TCC). This is the mechanism by which applications can request access to, for example, the webcam, microphone and (in recent macOS versions) also files such as those in the Documents and Download folders. This means that even applications that do not use the Mac Application sandbox might not have access to certain features or files.

Of course entitlements and TCC permissions would be useless if any process can just attach as a debugger to another process of the same user. If one application has access to the webcam, but the other doesn’t, then one process could attach as a debugger to the other process and inject some code to steal the webcam video. To fix this, the ability to debug other applications has been heavily restricted.

Changing a security model that has been used for decades to a more restrictive model is difficult, especially in something as complicated as macOS. Attaching debuggers is just one example, there are many similar techniques that could be used to inject code into a different process. Apple has squashed many of these techniques, but many other ones are likely still undiscovered.

Aside from Apple’s own code, these vulnerabilities could also occur in third-party software. It’s quite common to find a process injection vulnerability in a specific application, which means that the permissions (TCC permissions and entitlements) of that application are up for grabs for all other processes. Getting those fixed is a difficult process, because many third-party developers are not familiar with this new security model. Reporting these vulnerabilities often requires fully explaining this new model! Especially Electron applications are infamous for being easy to inject into, as it is possible to replace their JavaScript files without invalidating the code signature.

More dangerous than a process injection vulnerability in one application is a process injection technique that affects multiple, or even all, applications. This would give access to a large number of different entitlements and TCC permissions. A generic process injection vulnerability affecting all applications is a very powerful tool, as we’ll demonstrate in this post.

The saved state vulnerability

When shutting down a Mac, it will prompt you to ask if the currently open windows should be reopened the next time you log in. This is a part of functionally called “saved state” or “persistent UI”.

When reopening the windows, it can even restore new documents that were not yet saved in some applications.

It is used in more places than just at shutdown. For example, it is also used for a feature called App Nap. When application has been inactive for a while (has not been the focused application, not playing audio, etc.), then the system can tell it to save its state and terminates the process. macOS keeps showing a static image of the application’s windows and in the Dock it still appears to be running, while it is not. When the user switches back to the application, it is quickly launched and resumes its state. Internally, this also uses the same saved state functionality.

When building an application using AppKit, support for saving the state is for a large part automatic. In some cases the application needs to include its own objects in the saved state to ensure the full state can be recovered, for example in a document-based application.

Each time an application loses focus, it writes to the files:

~/Library/Saved Application State/<Bundle ID>.savedState/windows.plist
~/Library/Saved Application State/<Bundle ID>.savedState/data.data

The windows.plist file contains a list of all of the application’s open windows. (And some other things that don’t look like windows, such as the menu bar and the Dock menu.)

For example, a windows.plist for TextEdit.app could look like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<array>
	<dict>
		<key>MenuBar AvailableSpace</key>
		<real>1248</real>
		<key>NSDataKey</key>
		<data>
		Ay1IqBriwup4bKAanpWcEw==
		</data>
		<key>NSIsMainMenuBar</key>
		<true/>
		<key>NSWindowID</key>
		<integer>1</integer>
		<key>NSWindowNumber</key>
		<integer>5978</integer>
	</dict>
	<dict>
		<key>NSDataKey</key>
		<data>
		5lyzOSsKF24yEcwAKTBSVw==
		</data>
		<key>NSDragRegion</key>
		<data>
		AAAAgAIAAADAAQAABAAAAAMAAABHAgAAxgEAAAoAAAADAAAABwAAABUAAAAb
		AAAAKQAAAC8AAAA9AAAARwIAAMcBAAAMAAAAAwAAAAcAAAAVAAAAGwAAACkA
		AAAvAAAAPQAAAAkBAABLAQAARwIAANABAAAKAAAAFQAAABsAAAApAAAALwAA
		AD0AAAAJAQAASwEAAD4CAADWAQAABgAAAAwAAAAJAQAASwEAAD4CAADXAQAA
		BAAAAAwAAAA+AgAA2QEAAAIAAAD///9/
		</data>
		<key>NSTitle</key>
		<string>Untitled</string>
		<key>NSUIID</key>
		<string>_NS:34</string>
		<key>NSWindowCloseButtonFrame</key>
		<string>{{7, 454}, {14, 16}}</string>
		<key>NSWindowFrame</key>
		<string>177 501 586 476 0 0 1680 1025 </string>
		<key>NSWindowID</key>
		<integer>2</integer>
		<key>NSWindowLevel</key>
		<integer>0</integer>
		<key>NSWindowMiniaturizeButtonFrame</key>
		<string>{{27, 454}, {14, 16}}</string>
		<key>NSWindowNumber</key>
		<integer>5982</integer>
		<key>NSWindowWorkspaceID</key>
		<string></string>
		<key>NSWindowZoomButtonFrame</key>
		<string>{{47, 454}, {14, 16}}</string>
	</dict>
	<dict>
		<key>CFBundleVersion</key>
		<string>378</string>
		<key>NSDataKey</key>
		<data>
		P7BYxMryj6Gae9Q76wpqVw==
		</data>
		<key>NSDockMenu</key>
		<array>
			<dict>
				<key>command</key>
				<integer>1</integer>
				<key>mark</key>
				<integer>2</integer>
				<key>name</key>
				<string>Untitled</string>
				<key>system-icon</key>
				<integer>1735879022</integer>
				<key>tag</key>
				<integer>2</integer>
			</dict>
			<dict>
				<key>separator</key>
				<true/>
			</dict>
			<dict>
				<key>command</key>
				<integer>2</integer>
				<key>indent</key>
				<integer>0</integer>
				<key>name</key>
				<string>New Document</string>
				<key>tag</key>
				<integer>0</integer>
			</dict>
		</array>
		<key>NSExecutableInode</key>
		<integer>1152921500311961010</integer>
		<key>NSIsGlobal</key>
		<true/>
		<key>NSSystemAppearance</key>
		<data>
		YnBsaXN0MDDUAQIDBAUGBwpYJHZlcnNpb25ZJGFyY2hpdmVyVCR0b3BYJG9i
		amVjdHMSAAGGoF8QD05TS2V5ZWRBcmNoaXZlctEICVRyb290gAGkCwwRElUk
		bnVsbNINDg8QViRjbGFzc18QEE5TQXBwZWFyYW5jZU5hbWWAA4ACXxAUTlNB
		cHBlYXJhbmNlTmFtZUFxdWHSExQVFlokY2xhc3NuYW1lWCRjbGFzc2VzXE5T
		QXBwZWFyYW5jZaIVF1hOU09iamVjdAgRGiQpMjdJTFFTWF5jan1/gZidqLG+
		wQAAAAAAAAEBAAAAAAAAABgAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAADK
		</data>
		<key>NSSystemVersion</key>
		<array>
			<integer>12</integer>
			<integer>2</integer>
			<integer>1</integer>
		</array>
		<key>NSWindowID</key>
		<integer>4294967295</integer>
		<key>NSWindowZOrder</key>
		<array>
			<integer>5982</integer>
		</array>
	</dict>
</array>
</plist>

The data.data file contains a custom binary format. It consists of a list of records, each record contains an AES-CBC encrypted serialized object. The windows.plist file contains the key (NSDataKey) and a ID (NSWindowID) for the record from data.data it corresponds to.1

For example:

00000000  4e 53 43 52 31 30 30 30  00 00 00 01 00 00 01 b0  |NSCR1000........|
00000010  ec f2 26 b9 8b 06 c8 d0  41 5d 73 7a 0e cc 59 74  |..&.....A]sz..Yt|
00000020  89 ac 3d b3 b6 7a ab 1b  bb f7 84 0c 05 57 4d 70  |..=..z.......WMp|
00000030  cb 55 7f ee 71 f8 8b bb  d4 fd b0 c6 28 14 78 23  |.U..q.......(.x#|
00000040  ed 89 30 29 92 8c 80 bf  47 75 28 50 d7 1c 9a 8a  |..0)....Gu(P....|
00000050  94 b4 d1 c1 5d 9e 1a e0  46 62 f5 16 76 f5 6f df  |....]...Fb..v.o.|
00000060  43 a5 fa 7a dd d3 2f 25  43 04 ba e2 7c 59 f9 e8  |C..z../%C...|Y..|
00000070  a4 0e 11 5d 8e 86 16 f0  c5 1d ac fb 5c 71 fd 9d  |...]........\q..|
00000080  81 90 c8 e7 2d 53 75 43  6d eb b6 aa c7 15 8b 1a  |....-SuCm.......|
00000090  9c 58 8f 19 02 1a 73 99  ed 66 d1 91 8a 84 32 7f  |.X....s..f....2.|
000000a0  1f 5a 1e e8 ae b3 39 a8  cf 6b 96 ef d8 7b d1 46  |.Z....9..k...{.F|
000000b0  0c e2 97 d5 db d4 9d eb  d6 13 05 7d e0 4a 89 a4  |...........}.J..|
000000c0  d0 aa 40 16 81 fc b9 a5  f5 88 2b 70 cd 1a 48 94  |[email protected]+p..H.|
000000d0  47 3d 4f 92 76 3a ee 34  79 05 3f 5d 68 57 7d b0  |G=O.v:.4y.?]hW}.|
000000e0  54 6f 80 4e 5b 3d 53 2a  6d 35 a3 c9 6c 96 5f a5  |To.N[=S*m5..l._.|
000000f0  06 ec 4c d3 51 b9 15 b8  29 f0 25 48 2b 6a 74 9f  |..L.Q...).%H+jt.|
00000100  1a 5b 5e f1 14 db aa 8d  13 9c ef d6 f5 53 f1 49  |.[^..........S.I|
00000110  4d 78 5a 89 79 f8 bd 68  3f 51 a2 a4 04 ee d1 45  |MxZ.y..h?Q.....E|
00000120  65 ba c4 40 ad db e3 62  55 59 9a 29 46 2e 6c 07  |[email protected])F.l.|
00000130  34 68 e9 00 89 15 37 1c  ff c8 a5 d8 7c 8d b2 f0  |4h....7.....|...|
00000140  4b c3 26 f9 91 f8 c4 2d  12 4a 09 ba 26 1d 00 13  |K.&....-.J..&...|
00000150  65 ac e7 66 80 c0 e2 55  ec 9a 8e 09 cb 39 26 d4  |e..f...U.....9&.|
00000160  c8 15 94 d8 2c 8b fa 79  5f 62 18 39 f0 a5 df 0b  |....,..y_b.9....|
00000170  3d a4 5c bc 30 d5 2b cc  08 88 c8 49 d6 ab c0 e1  |=.\.0.+....I....|
00000180  c1 e5 41 eb 3e 2b 17 80  c4 01 64 3d 79 be 82 aa  |..A.>+....d=y...|
00000190  3d 56 8d bb e5 7a ea 89  0f 4c dc 16 03 e9 2a d8  |=V...z...L....*.|
000001a0  c5 3e 25 ed c2 4b 65 da  8a d9 0d d9 23 92 fd 06  |.>%..Ke.....#...|
[...]

Whenever an application is launched, AppKit will read these files and restore the windows of the application. This happens automatically, without the app needing to implement anything. The code for reading these files is quite careful: if the application crashed, then maybe the state is corrupted too. If the application crashes while restoring the state, then the next time the state is discarded and it does a fresh start.

The vulnerability we found is that the encrypted serialized object stored in the data.data file was not using “secure coding”. To explain what that means, we’ll first explain serialization vulnerabilities, in particular on macOS.

Serialized objects

Many object-oriented programming languages have added support for binary serialization, which turns an object into a bytestring and back. Contrary to XML and JSON, these are custom, language specific formats. In some programming languages, serialization support for classes is automatic, in other languages classes can opt-in.

In many of those languages these features have lead to vulnerabilities. The problem in many implementations is that an object is created first, and then its type is checked. Methods may be called on these objects when creating or destroying them. By combining objects in unusual ways, it is sometimes possible to gain remote code execution when a malicious object is deserialized. It is, therefore, not a good idea to use these serialization functions for any data that might be received over the network from an untrusted party.

For Python pickle and Ruby Marshall.load remote code execution is straightforward. In Java ObjectInputStream.readObject and C#, RCE is possible if certain commonly used libraries are used. The ysoserial and ysoserial.net tools can be used to generate a payload depending on the libraries in use. In PHP, exploitability for RCE is rare.

Objective-C serialization

In Objective-C, classes can implement the NSCoding protocol to be serializable. Subclasses of NSCoder, such as NSKeyedArchiver and NSKeyedUnarchiver, can be used to serialize and deserialize these objects.

How this works in practice is as follows. A class that implements NSCoding must include a method:

- (id)initWithCoder:(NSCoder *)coder;

In this method, this object can use coder to decode its instance variables, using methods such as -decodeObjectForKey:, -decodeIntegerForKey:, -decodeDoubleForKey:, etc. When it uses -decodeObjectForKey:, the coder will recursively call -initWithCoder: on that object, eventually decoding the entire graph of objects.

Apple has also realized the risk of deserializing untrusted input, so in 10.8, the NSSecureCoding protocol was added. The documentation for this protocol states:

A protocol that enables encoding and decoding in a manner that is robust against object substitution attacks.

This means that instead of creating an object first and then checking its type, a set of allowed classes needs to be included when decoding an object.

So instead of the unsafe construction:

id obj = [decoder decodeObjectForKey:@"myKey"];
if (![obj isKindOfClass:[MyClass class]]) { /* ...fail... */ }

The following must be used:

id obj = [decoder decodeObjectOfClass:[MyClass class] forKey:@"myKey"];

This means that when a secure coder is created, -decodeObjectForKey: is no longer allowed, but -decodeObjectOfClass:forKey: must be used.

That makes exploitable vulnerabilities significantly harder, but it could still happen. One thing to note here is that subclasses of the specified class are allowed. If, for example, the NSObject class is specified, then all classes implementing NSCoding are still allowed. If only NSDictionary are expected and an imported framework contains a rarely used and vulnerable subclass of NSDictionary, then this could also create a vulnerability.

In all of Apple’s operating systems, these serialized objects are used all over the place, often for inter-process exchange of data. For example, NSXPCConnection heavily relies on secure serialization for implementing remote method calls. In iMessage, these serialized objects are even exchanged with other users over the network. In such cases it is very important that secure coding is always enabled.

Creating a malicious serialized object

In the data.data file for saved states, objects were stored using an NSKeyedArchiver without secure coding enabled. This means we could include objects of any class that implements the NSCoding protocol. The likely reason for this is that applications can extend the saved state with their own objects, and because the saved state functionality is older than NSSecureCoding, Apple couldn’t just upgrade this to secure coding, as this could break third-party applications.

To exploit this, we wanted a method for constructing a chain of objects that could allows us to execute arbitrary code. However, no project similar to ysoserial for Objective-C appears to exist and we could not find other examples of abusing insecure deserialization in macOS. In Remote iPhone Exploitation Part 1: Poking Memory via iMessage and CVE-2019-8641 Samuel Groß of Google Project Zero describes an attack against a secure coder by abusing a vulnerability in NSSharedKeyDictionary, an uncommon subclass of NSDictionary. As this vulnerability is now fixed, we couldn’t use this.

By decompiling a large number of -initWithCoder: methods in AppKit, we eventually found a combination of 2 objects that we could use to call arbitrary Objective-C methods on another deserialized object.

We start with NSRuleEditor. The -initWithCoder: method of this class creates a binding to an object from the same archive with a key path also obtained from the archive.

Bindings are a reactive programming technique in Cocoa. It makes it possible to directly bind a model to a view, without the need for the boilerplate code of a controller. Whenever a value in the model changes, or the user makes a change in the view, the changes are automatically propagated.

A binding is created calling the method:

- (void)bind:(NSBindingName)binding 
    toObject:(id)observable 
 withKeyPath:(NSString *)keyPath 
     options:(NSDictionary<NSBindingOption, id> *)options;

This binds the property binding of the receiver to the keyPath of observable. A keypath a string that can be used, for example, to access nested properties of the object. But the more common method for creating bindings is by creating them as part of a XIB file in Xcode.

For example, suppose the model is a class Person, which has a property @property (readwrite, copy) NSString *name;. Then you could bind the “value” of a text field to the “name” keypath of a Person to create a field that shows (and can edit) the person’s name.

In the XIB editor, this would be created as follows:

The different options for what a keypath can mean are actually quite complicated. For example, when binding with a keypath of “foo”, it would first check if one the methods getFoo, foo, isFoo and _foo exists. This would usually be used to access a property of the object, but this is not required. When a binding is created, the method will be called immediately when creating the binding, to provide an initial value. It does not matter if that method actually returns void. This means that by creating a binding during deserialization, we can use this to call zero-argument methods on other deserialized objects!

ID NSRuleEditor::initWithCoder:(ID param_1,SEL param_2,ID unarchiver)
{
	...

	id arrayOwner = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey:@"NSRuleEditorBoundArrayOwner"];

	...

	if (arrayOwner) {
	  keyPath = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey:@"NSRuleEditorBoundArrayKeyPath"];
	  [self bind:@"rows" toObject:arrayOwner withKeyPath:keyPath options:nil];
	}

	...
}

In this case we use it to call -draw on the next object.

The next object we use is an NSCustomImageRep object. This obtains a selector (a method name) as a string and an object from the archive. When the -draw method is called, it invokes the method from the selector on the object. It passes itself as the first argument:


ID NSCustomImageRep::initWithCoder:(ID param_1,SEL param_2,ID unarchiver)
{
	...
	id drawObject = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey:@"NSDrawObject"];
	self.drawObject = drawObject;
	id drawMethod = [unarchiver decodeObjectForKey:@"NSDrawMethod"];
	SEL selector = NSSelectorFromString(drawMethod);
	self.drawMethod = selector;
	...
}

...

void ___24-[NSCustomImageRep_draw]_block_invoke(long param_1)
{
  ...
  [self.drawObject performSelector:self.drawMethod withObject:self];
  ...
}

By deserializing these two classes we can now call zero-argument methods and multiple argument methods, although the first argument will be an NSCustomImageRep object and the remaining arguments will be whatever happens to still be in those registers. Nevertheless, is a very powerful primitive. We’ll cover the rest of the chain we used in a future blog post.

Exploitation

Sandbox escape

First of all, we escaped the Mac Application sandbox with this vulnerability. To explain that, some more background on the saved state is necessary.

In a sandboxed application, many files that would be stored in ~/Library are stored in a separate container instead. So instead of saving its state in:

~/Library/Saved Application State/<Bundle ID>.savedState/

Sandboxed applications save their state to:

~/Library/Containers/<Bundle ID>/Data/Library/Saved Application State/<Bundle ID>.savedState/

Apparently, when the system is shut down while an application is still running (when the prompt is shown asking the user whether to reopen the windows the next time), the first location is symlinked to the second one by talagent. We are unsure of why, it might have something to do with upgrading an application to a new version which is sandboxed.

Secondly, most applications do not have access to all files. Sandboxed applications are very restricted of course, but with the addition of TCC even accessing the Downloads, Documents, etc. folders require user approval. If the application would open an open or save panel, it would be quite inconvenient if the user could only see the files that that application has access to. To solve this, a different process is launched when opening such a panel: com.apple.appkit.xpc.openAndSavePanelService. Even though the window itself is part of the application, its contents are drawn by openAndSavePanelService. This is an XPC service which has full access to all files. When the user selects a file in the panel, the application gains temporary access to that file. This way, users can still browse their entire disk even in applications that do not have permission to list those files.

As it is an XPC service with service type Application, it is launched separately for each app.

What we noticed is that this XPC Service reads its saved state, but using the bundle ID of the app that launched it! As this panel might be part of the saved state of multiple applications, it does make some sense that it would need to separate its state per application.

As it turns out, it reads its saved state from the location outside of the container, but with the application’s bundle ID:

~/Library/Saved Application State/<Bundle ID>.savedState/

But as we mentioned if the app was ever open when the user shut down their computer, then this will be a symlink to the container path.

Thus, we can escape the sandbox in the following way:

  1. Wait for the user to shut down while the app is open, if the symlink does not yet exist.
  2. Write malicious data.data and windows.plist files inside the app’s own container.
  3. Open an NSOpenPanel or NSSavePanel.

The com.apple.appkit.xpc.openAndSavePanelService process will now deserialize the malicious object, giving us code execution in a non-sandboxed process.

This was fixed earlier than the other issues, as CVE-2021-30659 in macOS 11.3. Apple addressed this by no longer loading the state from the same location in com.apple.appkit.xpc.openAndSavePanelService.

Privilege escalation

By injecting our code into an application with a specific entitlement, we can elevate our privileges to root. For this, we could apply the technique explained by A2nkF in Unauthd - Logic bugs FTW.

Some applications have an entitlement of com.apple.private.AuthorizationServices containing the value system.install.apple-software. This means that this application is allowed to install packages that have a signature generated by Apple without authorization from the user. For example, “Install Command Line Developer Tools.app” and “Bootcamp Assistant.app” have this entitlement. A2nkF also found a package signed by Apple that contains a vulnerability: macOSPublicBetaAccessUtility.pkg. When this package is installed to a specific disk, it will run (as root) a post-install script from that disk. The script assumes it is being installed to a disk containing macOS, but this is not checked. Therefore, by creating a malicious script at the same location it is possible to execute code as root by installing this package.

The exploitation steps are as follows:

  1. Create a RAM disk and copy a malicious script to the path that will be executed by macOSPublicBetaAccessUtility.pkg.
  2. Inject our code into an application with the com.apple.private.AuthorizationServices entitlement containing system.install.apple-software by creating the windows.plist and data.data files for that application and then launching it.
  3. Use the injected code to install the macOSPublicBetaAccessUtility.pkg package to the RAM disk.
  4. Wait for the post-install script to run.

In the writeup from A2nkF, the post-install script ran without the filesystem restrictions of SIP. It inherited this from the installation process, which needs it as package installation might need to write to SIP protected locations. This was fixed by Apple: post- and pre-install scripts are no longer SIP exempt. The package and its privilege escalation can still be used, however, as Apple still uses the same vulnerable installer package.

SIP filesystem bypass

Now that we have escaped the sandbox and elevated our privilages to root, we did want to bypass SIP as well. To do this, we looked around at all available applications to find one with a suitable entitlement. Eventually, we found something on the macOS Big Sur Beta installation disk image: “macOS Update Assistant.app” has the com.apple.rootless.install.heritable entitlement. This means that this process can write to all SIP protected locations (and it is heritable, which is convenient because we can just spawn a shell). Although it is supposed to be used only during the beta installation, we can just copy it to a normal macOS environment and run it there.

The exploitation for this is quite simple:

  1. Create malicious windows.plist and data.data files for “macOS Update Assistant.app”.
  2. Launch “macOS Update Assistant.app”.

When exempt from SIP’s filesystem restrictions, we can read all files from protected locations, such as the user’s Mail.app mailbox. We can also modify the TCC database, which means we can grant ourself permission to access the webcam, microphone, etc. We could also persist our malware on locations which are protected by SIP, making it very difficult to remove by anyone other than Apple. Finally, we can change the database of approved kernel extensions. This means that we could load a new kernel extension silently, without user approval. When combined with a vulnerable kernel extension (or a codesigning certificate that allows signing kernel extensions), we would have been able to gain kernel code execution, which would allow disabling all other restrictions too.

Demo

We recorded the following video to demonstrate the different steps. It first shows that the application “Sandbox” is sandboxed, then it escapes its sandbox and launches “Privesc”. This elevates privileges to root and launches “SIP Bypass”. Finally, this opens a reverse shell that is exempt from SIP’s filesystem restrictions, which is demonstrated by writing a file in /var/db/SystemPolicyConfiguration (the location where the database of approved kernel modules is stored):

The fix

Apple first fixed the sandbox escape in 11.3, by no longer reading the saved state of the application in com.apple.appkit.xpc.openAndSavePanelService (CVE-2021-30659).

Fixing the rest of the vulnerability was more complicated. Third-party applications may store their own objects in the saved state and these objects might not support secure coding. This brings us back to the method from the introduction: -applicationSupportsSecureRestorableState:. Applications can now opt-in to requiring secure coding for their saved state by returning TRUE from this method. Unless an app opts in, it will keep allowing non-secure coding, which means process injection might remain possible.

This does highlight one issue with the current design of these security measures: downgrade attacks. The code signature (and therefore entitlements) of an application will remain valid for a long time, and the TCC permissions of an application will still work if the application is downgraded. A non-sandboxed application could just silently download an older, vulnerable version of an application and exploit that. For the SIP bypass this would not work, as “macOS Update Assistant.app” does not run on macOS Monterey because certain private frameworks no longer contain the necessary symbols. But that is a coincidental fix, in many other cases older applications may still run fine. This vulnerability will therefore be present for as long as there is backwards compatibility with older macOS applications!

Nevertheless, if you write an Objective-C application, please make sure you add -applicationSupportsSecureRestorableState: to return TRUE and to adapt secure coding for all classes used for your saved states!

Conclusion

In the current security architecture of macOS, process injection is a powerful technique. A generic process injection vulnerability can be used to escape the sandbox, elevate privileges to root and to bypass SIP’s filesystem restrictions. We have demonstrated how we used the use of insecure deserialization in the loading of an application’s saved state to inject into any Cocoa process. This was addressed by Apple in the macOS Monterey update.


  1. It is unclear what security the AES encryption here is meant to add, as the key is stored right next to it. There is no MAC, so no integrity check for the ciphertext. ↩︎

Threat Roundup for August 5 to August 12

12 August 2022 at 20:12

Today, Talos is publishing a glimpse into the most prevalent threats we've observed between Aug. 5 and Aug. 12. As with previous roundups, this post isn't meant to be an in-depth analysis. Instead, this post will summarize the threats we've observed by highlighting key behavioral characteristics, indicators of compromise, and discussing how our customers are automatically protected from these threats.

As a reminder, the information provided for the following threats in this post is non-exhaustive and current as of the date of publication. Additionally, please keep in mind that IOC searching is only one part of threat hunting. Spotting a single IOC does not necessarily indicate maliciousness. Detection and coverage for the following threats is subject to updates, pending additional threat or vulnerability analysis. For the most current information, please refer to your Firepower Management Center, Snort.org, or ClamAV.net.

For each threat described below, this blog post only lists 25 of the associated file hashes and up to 25 IOCs for each category. An accompanying JSON file can be found herethat includes the complete list of file hashes, as well as all other IOCs from this post. A visual depiction of the MITRE ATT&CK techniques associated with each threat is also shown. In these images, the brightness of the technique indicates how prevalent it is across all threat files where dynamic analysis was conducted. There are five distinct shades that are used, with the darkest indicating that no files exhibited technique behavior and the brightest indicating that technique behavior was observed from 75 percent or more of the files.

The most prevalent threats highlighted in this roundup are:

Threat Name Type Description
Win.Dropper.Tofsee-9960568-0 Dropper Tofsee is multi-purpose malware that features a number of modules used to carry out various activities such as sending spam messages, conducting click fraud, mining cryptocurrency and more. Infected systems become part of the Tofsee spam botnet and are used to send large volumes of spam messages to infect additional systems and increase the size of the botnet under the operator's control.
Win.Dropper.TrickBot-9960840-0 Dropper Trickbot is a banking trojan targeting sensitive information for certain financial institutions. This malware is frequently distributed through malicious spam campaigns. Many of these campaigns rely on downloaders for distribution, such as VB scripts.
Win.Trojan.Zusy-9960880-0 Trojan Zusy, also known as TinyBanker or Tinba, is a trojan that uses man-in-the-middle attacks to steal banking information. When executed, it injects itself into legitimate Windows processes such as "explorer.exe" and "winver.exe." When the user accesses a banking website, it displays a form to trick the user into submitting personal information.
Win.Dropper.DarkComet-9961766-1 Dropper DarkComet and related variants are a family of remote access trojans designed to provide an attacker with control over an infected system. This malware can download files from a user's machine, mechanisms for persistence and hiding. It also has the ability to send back usernames and passwords from the infected system.
Win.Ransomware.TeslaCrypt-9960924-0 Ransomware TeslaCrypt is a well-known ransomware family that encrypts a user's files with strong encryption and demands Bitcoin in exchange for a file decryption service. A flaw in the encryption algorithm was discovered that allowed files to be decrypted without paying the ransomware, and eventually, the malware developers released the master key allowing all encrypted files to be recovered easily.
Win.Virus.Xpiro-9960895-1 Virus Expiro is a known file infector and information-stealer that hinders analysis with anti-debugging and anti-analysis tricks.
Win.Dropper.Emotet-9961142-0 Dropper Emotet is one of the most widely distributed and active malware families today. It is a highly modular threat that can deliver a wide variety of payloads. Emotet is commonly delivered via Microsoft Office documents with macros, sent as attachments on malicious emails.
Win.Dropper.Remcos-9961392-0 Dropper Remcos is a remote access trojan (RAT) that allows attackers to execute commands on the infected host, log keystrokes, interact with a webcam, and capture screenshots. This malware is commonly delivered through Microsoft Office documents with macros, sent as attachments on malicious emails.
Win.Dropper.Ramnit-9961396-0 Dropper Ramnit is a banking trojan that monitors web browser activity on an infected machine and collects login information from financial websites. It also has the ability to steal browser cookies and attempts to hide from popular antivirus software.

Threat Breakdown

Win.Dropper.Tofsee-9960568-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 10 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES
Value Name: Config4
3
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES 3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: LanguageList
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpqec.dll,-100
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpqec.dll,-101
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpqec.dll,-103
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpqec.dll,-102
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\napipsec.dll,-1
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\napipsec.dll,-2
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\napipsec.dll,-4
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\napipsec.dll,-3
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\tsgqec.dll,-100
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\tsgqec.dll,-101
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\tsgqec.dll,-102
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\tsgqec.dll,-103
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\eapqec.dll,-100
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\eapqec.dll,-101
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\eapqec.dll,-102
3
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\eapqec.dll,-103
3
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES
Value Name: Config0
3
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES
Value Name: Config1
3
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES
Value Name: Config2
3
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\CONTROL PANEL\BUSES
Value Name: Config3
3
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\FNWISXTV
Value Name: ErrorControl
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\FNWISXTV
Value Name: DisplayName
1
Mutexes Occurrences
Global\27a1e0c1-13fc-11ed-9660-001517101edf 1
Global\30977501-13fc-11ed-9660-001517215b93 1
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
216[.]146[.]35[.]35 3
31[.]13[.]65[.]174 3
142[.]251[.]40[.]196 3
96[.]103[.]145[.]165 3
31[.]41[.]244[.]82 3
31[.]41[.]244[.]85 3
80[.]66[.]75[.]254 3
80[.]66[.]75[.]4 3
31[.]41[.]244[.]128 3
31[.]41[.]244[.]126/31 3
208[.]76[.]51[.]51 2
74[.]208[.]5[.]20 2
208[.]76[.]50[.]50 2
202[.]137[.]234[.]30 2
212[.]77[.]101[.]4 2
193[.]222[.]135[.]150 2
203[.]205[.]219[.]57 2
47[.]43[.]18[.]9 2
67[.]231[.]144[.]94 2
188[.]125[.]72[.]74 2
40[.]93[.]207[.]0/31 2
205[.]220[.]176[.]72 2
135[.]148[.]130[.]75 2
121[.]53[.]85[.]11 2
67[.]195[.]204[.]72/30 1
*See JSON for more IOCs
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]bl[.]spamcop[.]net 3
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]cbl[.]abuseat[.]org 3
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]dnsbl[.]sorbs[.]net 3
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]in-addr[.]arpa 3
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]sbl-xbl[.]spamhaus[.]org 3
249[.]5[.]55[.]69[.]zen[.]spamhaus[.]org 3
microsoft-com[.]mail[.]protection[.]outlook[.]com 3
microsoft[.]com 3
www[.]google[.]com 3
www[.]instagram[.]com 3
comcast[.]net 3
mx1a1[.]comcast[.]net 3
jotunheim[.]name 3
niflheimr[.]cn 3
whois[.]arin[.]net 2
whois[.]iana[.]org 2
mx-eu[.]mail[.]am0[.]yahoodns[.]net 2
aspmx[.]l[.]google[.]com 2
mta5[.]am0[.]yahoodns[.]net 2
icloud[.]com 2
cox[.]net 2
walla[.]com 2
hanmail[.]net 2
allstate[.]com 2
wp[.]pl 2
*See JSON for more IOCs
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\config\systemprofile 3
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\config\systemprofile:.repos 3
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\fnwisxtv 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\airdnsoq 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\uclxhmik 1
%TEMP%\dnyabinr.exe 1
%TEMP%\lcxykqya.exe 1
%TEMP%\qzguacfj.exe 1

File Hashes

098ad43e2067c5c814cebe1fc52bdc528289c6a2cc96daf4e8bac90d1c95a0b3 2240525bf4ee830766ec33e2e3c0dfcdf871748088fcf068770fd306940c5957 693cd93fbc6bfb587ad011477ae870805725c5403260621a290f61bb0d243f47 a6b68aa5d00739401b413ed936526ea5e767824fddb4e768e03fb05dc369a6fd b9820bc7b09bfa88556efac463b7459d2f4a47f06cc953529a9782fdbefd4959 c2cb05d50c06d9ed65a7c53fb2f6b7977f2988f5fbbd928266bb8ea27723b243 d6df88c6f61812a4bb662abb8d90fb4ba7e17ae5b9351251d001b7945d7aae98 ec745df5a9e65776f76b97e9685ad86fbb130bb6a3146a7823bd94c7c6502f1d f3e93f62b4f4699a3d20e85fa3c9e8b7eb9129a15ca66720d4f677cae0c5a469 f8a2e41ea8ca0e998bcd54d8256cb538b1e32cec4e80eb810e8df003427b886b

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella This has coverage
WSA This has coverage

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Dropper.TrickBot-9960840-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 36 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\SYSTEMCERTIFICATES\USERDS 36
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS
Value Name: 4334c972
36
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS
Value Name: 2d17e659
36
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent3
7
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent5
5
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent9
4
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent6
4
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent7
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent2
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent1
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent8
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent0
2
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: IntelPowerAgent4
2
Mutexes Occurrences
98b59d0b000000cc 36
98b59d0b00000120 36
Global\{2d17e659d34601689591} 36
98b59d0b00000174 36
98b59d0b00000150 36
98b59d0b00000158 36
98b59d0b000001ac 35
98b59d0b00000308 35
98b59d0b0000043c 35
98b59d0b000004b4 35
98b59d0b000001bc 35
98b59d0b000002ec 35
98b59d0b000001f0 35
98b59d0b000001c4 35
98b59d0b0000021c 35
98b59d0b0000025c 35
98b59d0b00000294 35
98b59d0b00000320 35
98b59d0b000003d4 35
98b59d0b000003f8 35
98b59d0b000004dc 35
98b59d0b0000060c 8
98b59d0b000005cc 8
98b59d0b000004f8 8
98b59d0b00000614 7
*See JSON for more IOCs
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
209[.]197[.]3[.]8 11
72[.]21[.]81[.]240 7
69[.]164[.]46[.]0 6
8[.]253[.]154[.]236/31 3
23[.]46[.]150[.]81 2
23[.]46[.]150[.]58 2
8[.]253[.]141[.]249 1
8[.]253[.]38[.]248 1
8[.]253[.]140[.]118 1
23[.]46[.]150[.]43 1
8[.]247[.]119[.]126 1
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
download[.]windowsupdate[.]com 36
adtejoyo1377[.]tk 36
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%ProgramData%\c7150968.exe 1
%LOCALAPPDATA%\gusEBBF.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\ba886437.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\jfpDCC6.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\63b007ed.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\dtaE10F.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\545ba94b.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\hcv6907.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\7afae1e8.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\greA7E2.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\9421c9aa.exe 1
%APPDATA%\vqpA923.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\f779fb59.exe 1
%ProgramData%\xywA29.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\940d0a1e.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\jawD8CB.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\a37667ce.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\lkyB72F.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\edcfad58.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\pvf22C5.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\182b8517.exe 1
%LOCALAPPDATA%\qsw15A4.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\a3a20124.exe 1
%HOMEPATH%\xqh15A4.tmp.bat 1
%ProgramData%\a116e074.exe 1
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

007a16c9f6908085a2d65e991ae691f41e7ceab17653200669b4286af82e8c12 017306c686a5a81630e746b9518106fd5e54b410b50a61f43cba7a3850b1fec8 024d73837dea32792852294b951dcb246c56442ebde4643cef6733f411f581b6 0284c0aff10ff3ca7e6078f3d8191fc9c4db42fbfb912a8cefabc937c1eca87d 02df9ec5bfb9e1bb613b5ee7d4a518bccc9f87580182f26d6e5d5a643036e3a1 03226228480f9e9d87a0370428d337023226314bd9447efccdbc03bb672ec81b 0337b9f06cda7d7a6e96ce2a29e0f004fb6df49d3b82d294a17a13604e754f86 03a89b1af244c7d20db8498d9284c20deea9462fb15db2f89b4c59a9be47c2f0 04432d06396fac85167c0a9dadf206dc50ea8527c29b943b77f192e45dbce22d 04679de514d8e3902341b314e324e6f75ba536d09da05e99958dc5b4a689de42 049f0322736b0abeec70630b9efbbd40d9a0916ce359a5a8168165d25a76e48f 04e819e635fc974afd4ee533b478841ba581ddcff254034fdbfea6522939ef5f 05b51b8179992a7e21259d9eacdaf8b1115e51056ec0104daddda5a0810f7126 0734ea55ac016a1e6b6ac40837883a684656eec9ce857351c9f99d3c965d6501 07e4ebd0b135dbfcf1e7d2b60386c9b52fa5d154d072a5689eb3a7a2b15112d6 08da477f7c363ddbc11224260717cf6f7f48e849cff403e25559529029b8fdf4 08e9ccb010aceac1ea0c0fbb41e58c8e2552b30de500bf43e298a645f5acedf7 097f9d7400b8a8c8bf5aa5339bf18359148a533f9136cd9b6279623e4db293d7 0bde820541632a300070601291eb1c478b9d09da2b405f740d6fe92b290a45de 0be2e49c02aa297d158bd5fe213a96584455fb4cea7c24dd100b9922df2a45c5 0bf64ebc68956ea9d73858f32530c20fab4243fb09320adfd500fb94842a9888 0c29c2763f311604136a06a99fa76ed09411572cd796021b60c66806e6c8e5a9 0c6b997f98a1e58caf5a16a90317d2cb1d2474ac5c5926f26fa2b14a9299638a 0d30d3c9cf63898bb2e970ec5a54dfe868fc5f519fd6b283bd00a2d22a01a653 0da6c492cc755852c07bf7511b774e2527dce42be420f602e9445f1bb760ad33
*See JSON for more IOCs

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella N/A
WSA N/A

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Trojan.Zusy-9960880-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 16 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH 12
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: MarkTime
12
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: Description
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: Type
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: Start
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: ErrorControl
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: ImagePath
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: DisplayName
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: WOW64
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: ObjectName
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: FailureActions
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\PQRSTU 2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\PQRSTU
Value Name: MarkTime
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: Group
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CDEFGH
Value Name: InstallTime
2
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: Description
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: Type
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: Start
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: ErrorControl
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: DisplayName
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: WOW64
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: ObjectName
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\ABCDEF
Value Name: FailureActions
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\PQRSTU
Value Name: Description
1
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\PQRSTU
Value Name: Type
1
Mutexes Occurrences
127.0.0.1:8000:Cdefgh 3
112.74.89.58:44366:Cdefgh 3
112.74.89.58:42150:Cdefgh 1
47.100.137.128:8001:Pqrstu 1
22.23.24.56:8001:Pqrstu 1
hz122.f3322.org:8001:Cdefgh 1
112.74.89.58:35807:Cdefgh 1
112.74.89.58:46308:Cdefgh 1
101.33.196.136:3389:Cdefgh 1
127.0.0.1:8001:Cdefgh 1
183.28.28.43:8001:Abcdef 1
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
112[.]74[.]89[.]58 6
22[.]23[.]24[.]56 1
47[.]100[.]137[.]128 1
101[.]33[.]196[.]136 1
183[.]28[.]28[.]43 1
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
hz122[.]f3322[.]org 1
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%SystemRoot%\svchost.exe 4

File Hashes

04fa031e5d2d86f8dbe0d3b95d67ea774448df4613e8acce79f0c9a30ef041bc 2444b744b5c06e9410ee5c3baa807569fde44c5092192428de935e03d25b1edb 466ca0805173034a7b12a5ffce104bbe5ed312e7441abdb98849ae4103150d04 5a755f07d3b90ac5a2041fd04fd764c40882dd20b50f91fddbc10b8c6341591d 5b53262a14fe1dcd42d670b0488d0de11aeb7cfa84e36acb4eec0c13b5fd2d73 5ca6b22c6e7de5f0b9437970f1f9360ad4f3a74f964eb319080e347c27c6dff9 6ea5fdaa95dbe09ccbc474ba4fc9fbe796e79c02d2b4f65f223feda5643f5400 86bd70bc7bb74d3d4991b0f1c7e15ddef1d09695b3940c5fb015f2d00ce5f558 b9b344bd7005b233cbb85395f61c309938fe70e2f8a8d0b2c24441ba074f9ca5 bea6c7b4117eb1f894d830c77ddf6d4424bccb6043d0f43c257522d253321c3e c0a8a6e606e46a970cefe81f269ec6aec2a538830c2f7e03cf0eac55b135a59a c968ae3cfbbd89673b49f6bfd474eea846bdb1e2e3a7c5376dbcda5290d445ed dfc315d962da82d84b54683a849edf4e7b16bb136dbc2eb1198d35e528920103 ec6cb8ff27e33d7e69ce02885baa9c08fd5a03349a16a52590353a4ec364c464 f240b80b34fa480dc7236ddecb5c326e719a094e49df5a6f2070712650553066 fd0e616e5ebb9075c44bb6772cf8b2c46801fafdb0716636850dc2ec0fe06f8c

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella N/A
WSA This has coverage

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Dropper.DarkComet-9961766-1

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 33 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\DC3_FEXEC 29
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: Windows Debugger
24
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS NT\CURRENTVERSION\WINLOGON
Value Name: UserInit
23
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: LanguageList
19
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: MicroUpdate
11
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: svchost.exe
7
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM
Value Name: EnableLUA
5
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM 5
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\SHAREDACCESS\PARAMETERS\FIREWALLPOLICY\STANDARDPROFILE
Value Name: EnableFirewall
4
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\SHAREDACCESS\PARAMETERS\FIREWALLPOLICY\STANDARDPROFILE
Value Name: DisableNotifications
4
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: AntiVirusDisableNotify
4
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM
Value Name: DisableTaskMgr
3
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: UpdatesDisableNotify
3
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WSCSVC
Value Name: Start
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM
Value Name: DisableRegistryTools
3
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: rundll32
3
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\CURRENTVERSION\EXPLORERN
Value Name: NoControlPanel
1
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\CURRENTVERSION 1
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\CURRENTVERSION\EXPLORERN 1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: Microsoft
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: Windows Updater
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: Update
1
Mutexes Occurrences
DC_MUTEX-<random, matching [A-Z0-9]{7}> 22
DCPERSFWBP 18
DC_MUTEX-5DND8AT 7
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
99[.]229[.]175[.]244 1
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
pervert[.]no-ip[.]info 7
pervert2[.]no-ip[.]info 7
delvega[.]no-ip[.]org 2
wp-enhanced[.]no-ip[.]org 2
funstuff712[.]zapto[.]org 2
fflazhhf1[.]no-ip[.]org 1
darkcometss[.]no-ip[.]org 1
not4umac[.]no-ip[.]biz 1
sanderkidah[.]no-ip[.]org 1
bobolobob[.]no-ip[.]biz 1
hg-ma[.]zapto5[.]org 1
corrosivegas2010[.]zapto[.]org 1
profi555[.]no-ip[.]org 1
hg-ma[.]zapto[.]org 1
jugoboy1[.]zapto[.]org 1
hg-ma[.]zapto1[.]org 1
hg-ma[.]zapto2[.]org 1
hg-ma[.]zapto3[.]org 1
hg-ma[.]zapto4[.]org 1
jackreapez[.]zapto[.]org 1
magicmq[.]no-ip[.]org 1
kenrickm[.]no-ip[.]org 1
mrganja[.]no-ip[.]org 1
cherubi[.]no-ip[.]org 1
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%APPDATA%\WinDbg 30
%APPDATA%\WinDbg\windbg.exe 29
%APPDATA%\dclogs 28
\svchost.exe 7
%TEMP%\uxcv9v 7
%TEMP%\uxcv9v.vbs 7
%HOMEPATH%\Documents\MSDCSC 6
%HOMEPATH%\Documents\MSDCSC\msdcsc.exe 6
%TEMP%\MSDCSC 5
%TEMP%\MSDCSC\msdcsc.exe 5
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\MSDCSC 3
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\MSDCSC\msdcsc.exe 3
%TEMP%\tMMjnM 1
%TEMP%\xMWbLz.vbs 1
%TEMP%\tMMjnM.vbs 1
%APPDATA%\WinDbg\msdnaa.exe 1
%TEMP%\Mi0z67 1
%HOMEPATH%\Documents\Explorer\Iexplorer.exe 1
%TEMP%\q7EVTk 1
%TEMP%\mmsHyU 1
%TEMP%\q7EVTk.vbs 1
%TEMP%\mmsHyU.vbs 1
%APPDATA%\WinUpd\WinUpdater.exe 1
%TEMP%\alRnXV 1
%TEMP%\alRnXV.vbs 1
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

0153ea1e28f729d6604f422075202e48a599969c04c30e4a3056e3a308148eb3 050332edd1c7356a6e8a86471699135d90ba402d1f7ac0a27da39ccdb94ba0e8 07525015abc52c0820727bbfe3a29f62e1e5e0ca8af36ca8716ae5ea12e71a75 09fce07fb07b90dc54f5e72dd08d8677f62e948e6a0450e63f25cc6e22f99ff5 0a5710ed174fbee931562112147c3bf6cf8609a5f1674d0c878a6888548cb0c9 0db09a5cc0ff770b4024f14bf6b56b03c4ec599fe0499fc3a8d5da2625d93954 0f67c4df374d4e01f9838a7dc6ab174c0d8f4b5f2485b670f24c7fcdf65f3269 10f39ff02541b02857c11ca18a1cc745e075224ad510af7ad18b21dcb0d3cfa0 12449565aed227128301078ece7695cd6fbd8fb735e8f8b4238e08a1b181a651 13d377317be765d9d333e6a6d41bb83cffb606547dc308fefe0dcea87133b172 157be56d2b1cee72ad290957752e089cd39f39c51807c6791b25b875113758ab 15c65c639231d17726fa4a2c0cef2a7975a52f5d71ba8d7e4e3e1f053c066528 16cc7eabf5a54d8b376b6de32e2591902044a558ded0a527fcc0143e1686c4af 16e972675f3d1bd26aff1accdde7925e4cd5ba6d5f2a33826d3d75606a1bc955 173cae8d47a5d796b06fdd18c951003342ad08d0aee4be2823332df003b5673a 17dbbd57df81e29f2d19aba93c1626efe92bff713ad8b8e65b449e843aff54e8 19370c555e8e7ed5133ca6efa7acc98fc360983cc04193cc195ea0c8a0bf2931 1984c2439c1acacb9ec7c6468db48017d8c2aa4e2da5829d572bb6f5050e80cd 1b7a03db77e43e04badd95d28554df1f9e3d97197605af709df0387d3bd0c1e8 1b9f9491a6d98e3de499641caa8ac736f2c6f76e4ac8960170d89fea7026c69e 1bd9838e181acb88813cdea1d228b445e06b921bff3cece199f9551522eff27d 1cd35eff6c0963356162d68f5434b19728f2805db71b5c616ff534d2c961d093 1d25e1479054eea2355385f60a9ce320af2e5ff5ff1333bfabc72518f7337056 1f3c3ebac21a63328b72317246fb5731720e1d311cdb7928543e1c13e87994d3 2066531192b69556304df9a65266a2d2e5978ae8cec323b6860eb230fd2faa79
*See JSON for more IOCs

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security N/A
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella N/A
WSA N/A

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Ransomware.TeslaCrypt-9960924-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 16 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM
Value Name: EnableLinkedConnections
16
<HKU>\.DEFAULT\SOFTWARE\TRUEIMG 16
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\TRUEIMG 16
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\ACTION CENTER\CHECKS\{C8E6F269-B90A-4053-A3BE-499AFCEC98C4}.CHECK.0
Value Name: CheckSetting
16
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\TRUEIMG
Value Name: ID
16
<HKCU>\Software\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{14,16}'> 16
<HKCU>\Software\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{14,16}'>
Value Name: data
16
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _lfia
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _hfnk
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _kcgt
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _ppqk
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _kaol
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _abtg
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _rpua
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _raet
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _kwxa
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _ojsf
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _kiyk
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _iykv
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _hpdk
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _htkc
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _fshu
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: _fanp
1
Mutexes Occurrences
__xfghx__ 16
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
74[.]220[.]199[.]6 16
64[.]190[.]63[.]111 16
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
prodocument[.]co[.]uk 16
marketathart[.]com 16
joshsawyerdesign[.]com 16
emmy2015[.]com 16
nlhomegarden[.]com 16
esbook[.]com 16
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\lv.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\mk.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\mn.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\mng.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\mng2.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\mr.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\ms.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\nb.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\ne.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\nl.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\nn.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\pa-in.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\pl.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\ps.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\pt-br.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\pt.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\ro.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\ru.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sa.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\si.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sk.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sl.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sq.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sr-spc.txt 16
%ProgramFiles%\7-Zip\Lang\sr-spl.txt 16
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

00e862ecba1e2a71769a67fc5c27499e00c5594f6b7ed4e4114c2fe1fb43492f 144c480ed69ac652c4eb4efa5b6038d7a68ed3bca67089997b4228e1c814f7c4 1b02123c913912f44a6ef1c3c4a5a008270d9d8e802e92b4baa259135f25dc21 22f322c8241b4860c066f5ae57115c58f373753e3d8c9bede4521e5a5ed85e65 35aeb94c99b948b122f3e4bd4298107ab15cb8bbdb11b533d32666dbb1455ae3 3ba05e043bf3148202f498dcddb6bd67680f76640aef2d08f9ae1272ff85e719 41cba3025ecc75863b7a836ee00fdf2bbc2df90dffb17541b5bb1c9fcb269bd1 9223631593b46b54450b76028a69ddd837d06cd7e9b3d8e3f7bd584a46af22bf b2713458d2c3ebd4b558f8c2ce19a90bd97095ca868fd499755bf1c9cbd0c388 bdf2c5fcf72e7d7870e81ffacdd01206ed98d2446a85c28e7eaf73e26d7a6eda be9fac828e64c19e0a3fbf3c4a752d5332b7c0b849556f5388645515a29538ee c00039c0454935a5079dc801ce4420457eb9964cbed8372b5aff5c60a45fa26c d540b31f009a4138b5d35735fa9976522f4d5ee9e6b8dbdbde479796ebc6d4c0 dba60ef1804b4d90d74a2988fe53f044d7619f469d0ba9660e5646a1a67439cd f1ab2d7ace4656b5f3770186d088ac0644482fe43f38fe2bdb9217744d0f58c1 ff6f821dc0526f3615b1a3c37b2b14094f53d05cb0a6a753cb257cb0bcde6898

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella This has coverage
WSA This has coverage

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Virus.Xpiro-9960895-1

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 23 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V2.0.50727_32
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V2.0.50727_64
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V4.0.30319_32
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V4.0.30319_32
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\COMSYSAPP
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\COMSYSAPP
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\MOZILLAMAINTENANCE
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\MOZILLAMAINTENANCE
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\OSE
Value Name: Type
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\OSE
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER\SVC\S-1-5-21-2580483871-590521980-3826313501-500 23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER\SVC\S-1-5-21-2580483871-590521980-3826313501-500
Value Name: EnableNotifications
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V2.0.50727_32
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V2.0.50727_64
Value Name: Start
23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\.NETFRAMEWORK\V2.0.50727\NGENSERVICE\STATE
Value Name: AccumulatedWaitIdleTime
23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\.NETFRAMEWORK\V2.0.50727\NGENSERVICE\LISTENEDSTATE
Value Name: RootstoreDirty
23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\.NETFRAMEWORK\V2.0.50727\NGENSERVICE\STATE
Value Name: AccumulatedWaitIdleTime
23
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\.NETFRAMEWORK\V2.0.50727\NGENSERVICE\LISTENEDSTATE
Value Name: RootstoreDirty
23
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WSCSVC
Value Name: Start
22
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V4.0.30319_64
Value Name: Type
22
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\CLR_OPTIMIZATION_V4.0.30319_64
Value Name: Start
22
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\IEETWCOLLECTORSERVICE
Value Name: Type
22
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\IEETWCOLLECTORSERVICE
Value Name: Start
22
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WINDEFEND
Value Name: Start
21
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\EXT\STATS\{761497BB-D6F0-462C-B6EB-D4DAF1D92D43} 18
Mutexes Occurrences
kkq-vx_mtx63 23
kkq-vx_mtx64 23
kkq-vx_mtx65 23
kkq-vx_mtx66 23
kkq-vx_mtx67 23
kkq-vx_mtx68 23
kkq-vx_mtx69 23
kkq-vx_mtx70 23
kkq-vx_mtx71 23
kkq-vx_mtx72 23
kkq-vx_mtx73 23
kkq-vx_mtx74 23
kkq-vx_mtx75 23
kkq-vx_mtx76 23
kkq-vx_mtx77 23
kkq-vx_mtx78 23
kkq-vx_mtx79 23
kkq-vx_mtx80 23
kkq-vx_mtx81 23
kkq-vx_mtx82 23
kkq-vx_mtx83 23
kkq-vx_mtx84 23
kkq-vx_mtx85 23
kkq-vx_mtx86 23
kkq-vx_mtx87 23
*See JSON for more IOCs
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
107[.]22[.]125[.]105 7
3[.]217[.]206[.]46 4
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
ninite[.]com 21
www[.]bing[.]com 1
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%CommonProgramFiles%\Microsoft Shared\OfficeSoftwareProtectionPlatform\OSPPSVC.EXE 23
%CommonProgramFiles(x86)%\microsoft shared\Source Engine\OSE.EXE 23
%ProgramFiles(x86)%\Microsoft Office\Office14\GROOVE.EXE 23
%ProgramFiles(x86)%\Mozilla Maintenance Service\maintenanceservice.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\mscorsvw.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\mscorsvw.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\mscorsvw.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\mscorsvw.exe 23
%System32%\FXSSVC.exe 23
%System32%\alg.exe 23
%System32%\dllhost.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\ehome\ehsched.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\ngen_service.log 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\ngen_service.log 23
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\dllhost.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\svchost.exe 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\ngen_service.log 23
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\dllhost.vir 23
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\svchost.vir 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\ngenservicelock.dat 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\ngen_service.lock 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\ngenservicelock.dat 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\ngen_service.lock 23
%SystemRoot%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\ngenservicelock.dat 23
%CommonProgramFiles(x86)%\microsoft shared\source engine\ose.vir 23
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

137ad3b55addd7191c8c974beef6b65bae791bc4de1e86b7e2965b311d40e2d0 1cfd0fd601a0f5234ce72672ec9c6c866dca03836198d93a320ed5df0bddd7f8 1e831b6d0cabaa8b44de36c1b96dd6e54e295502eb171be4f87723212fe574ca 1f935627d9866da115f1aad78be290f60a639bec1a94d6b8397326eeb46c111b 30ffb87628211e78074a3a891b8bd173db6f2d74dc97e735ff386361cf29aee1 3f948d4350c566416101441adb1c00121bd835db40cc08c73a556b764458673d 47934d4f40e9a5af0ee572a7e1e088d29d3bfd655d4aff26018a64118ad68a24 563c16cb752614726d350000fbf514a8b8d32a8074cd12c7545d6ff93f790ed9 591ae4985fd6993f580eae6f93f3e96f7c73c14dc3927e96223e8003f9ab3588 5cbd454095120231e23ca372fee8e9e76f34e3f5491f8ab10e8e5203e4c52570 6f0f5fda67646bc8def9c66497041528cd8ed7158a169c1b0787f59360c28ea8 7ec4a0246b5d33dfe811f4f34ab94a6b82d822196776afbe28a0f543ade8ad63 97d0aeeca4859c38984086ff1bef13c9bd11466131058fabda20dd1b21342f7a a2839faa3c7ecbff8afa71ca5787690e0e3eaeb36b899bab1926b19ce32b8c6d bcf2ae9a67fe974c02e95fbdd4edcce7df377a288c7586dae9d0b625aeedc93b c51d235b290424ad6baf08d67ab600a260200846a3f4b218e916933594b40537 d3d7dd910bd5e79fdb39d51aa83afaccdfd10538d30dd69bc7219a146e897361 d445c1ac4afae6cb028a2508c655271e3d69e07d9e016887d89d790c80fc0409 e23566aabaa7743da973840338829cc25d6936e8fcb5fb8d9b78b0ccac46c1ea e37b0661d4e4483048abcf0abba65060c78716672790e12bb0a768f04b18134b e48a371f7f5f3ad1cda0d16312f30846b6a12494967c8fba8de7f65a5673b1ff eb1ecc1ef099105b4882ccace3caf843ed1508b1463f8af6cc94adaa0181b721 ec1bc44db50911234444c575d91335113232ab5b1f6cad6acf5e52ff16ccd8fb

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella N/A
WSA N/A

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Dropper.Emotet-9961142-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 218 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: LanguageList
190
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: Type
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: Start
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: ErrorControl
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: DisplayName
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: WOW64
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: ObjectName
64
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'> 63
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: ImagePath
61
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\<random, matching '[A-Z0-9]{8}'>
Value Name: Description
60
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\dot3svc.dll,-1103
14
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @oleres.dll,-5013
10
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\browser.dll,-101
9
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\AxInstSV.dll,-104
9
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\dps.dll,-501
9
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\ehome\ehrecvr.exe,-102
8
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @appmgmts.dll,-3251
8
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\system32\dhcpcore.dll,-101
8
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\appinfo.dll,-101
8
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\audiosrv.dll,-205
7
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\appidsvc.dll,-101
7
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @comres.dll,-948
7
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\dnsapi.dll,-102
7
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%systemroot%\system32\cscsvc.dll,-201
7
<HKCR>\LOCAL SETTINGS\MUICACHE\82\52C64B7E
Value Name: @%SystemRoot%\System32\bthserv.dll,-102
7
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
5[.]196[.]74[.]210 82
74[.]208[.]45[.]104 82
45[.]55[.]219[.]163 82
45[.]55[.]36[.]51 82
174[.]45[.]13[.]118 82
180[.]92[.]239[.]110 82
91[.]83[.]93[.]99 82
217[.]199[.]160[.]224 78
89[.]32[.]150[.]160 78
68[.]183[.]190[.]199 78
45[.]161[.]242[.]102 78
209[.]236[.]123[.]42 78
71[.]197[.]211[.]156 78
91[.]121[.]54[.]71 78
85[.]25[.]207[.]108 58
88[.]249[.]181[.]198 58
65[.]156[.]53[.]186 58
68[.]183[.]233[.]80 58
177[.]32[.]8[.]85 58
81[.]17[.]93[.]134 58
197[.]232[.]36[.]108 58
23[.]46[.]150[.]72 30
23[.]46[.]150[.]48 27
23[.]221[.]72[.]27 13
23[.]221[.]72[.]10 6
*See JSON for more IOCs
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
apps[.]identrust[.]com 82
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\<random, matching '[a-z]{8}'> 35
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\printui 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\NlsLexicons0414 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\utildll 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\NlsData000a 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\fthsvc 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\shlwapi 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\WcsPlugInService 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\NlsLexicons0002 2
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\d3d8thk 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\instnm 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\cttune 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\tsbyuv 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\KBDSW 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\fc 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\rshx32 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\KBDHE220 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\WMADMOE 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\NlsData0002 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\iprop 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\rastls 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\aecache 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\SMBHelperClass 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\KBDNO 1
%SystemRoot%\SysWOW64\mfc100 1
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

0154a4e3faa4dafca324954364d049324d6fcc6b8a1c90cbae92cd41f8927c4e 01ea88880d59cd617d53bfd1849ad0c2023c9febc43b48579d06802c9b324d77 0222be0813e32c7a2c87a31482e33830a91b73a750aff3499da5caa100646607 0242673f6b5b086a61873f4773b8b7f119d025325f2724cb362b1151adccfc8b 02f7999d6693f08f5983effb8bee06145be3f7dc22ff1e5b745e8d0633fe19d6 038008283ccba00047b767169fd02554182310d7b32c6def8a3fc1c6a045daf1 0403b01de17d2130faa4eecf11111acf15bc672dfeb9394054e5aa05166b8289 044242411968ca1c92b3a645d7f470cf0cda1a220920da688558fde7f4108eb9 055014bbf3a21173e4e2d9fb22124d7d249bc8f8c748151197d6e985bdf06f67 05cf33a7202716161360fc0e6fd45091f9a290954ba26a64037745652fa4b487 066202dc95bd51220d42f603a030ef71527b8dc56e62200f0d175f09f3f89c27 06ee8bc6b3c35b3d3ea924f73db6da1df9061e69b487bad9718328f1d186f0c7 0780d91df0f27af4b00d51e531a1cf12d50bbb048a211e0b287820bd9313eab5 07c262357505c7bef31ebfe2bb6c13a3d386e38d262ba2bdbfb2e52c1bd066fd 080fc908405201cbf074d6343acf66ee3c4d57f231c399b87097f75b8ca7960f 08e6bfa50d4fe544c03474d1a23776762a47a0ceed44dbe5bbb6e09fce30b055 091b50c4a374f1fc1d15e81044c2b50f03fa7c3e8359eb09bb95dc25deeebd4d 098861c8b4411225b4fde8737ccb518052ef40c896ee4e42dfeecf322e56f07f 09c4a4a31a51590b27a82bcff450c29391d3dfde480df012f43020e858efb639 0b533cf67e6fd8298b62d3aaea82f07ad11c600fa8917f3b683a72da9ca2fa7e 0c33a1f3687e65daa8825856f309cc40ef97d0892ef7742a77355124e296b815 0ccab31b5610aac24a242c812f474ff24b8e345aa78fd4b7d0a92b690938f908 0cd25d45a5e31de0fc1b75ba65c5b43d934b60b7d07638aaa1ce0d83afd984ec 0d3fee19509a873e96a1b2559d9193cf046f7f35f49d16b180438d9df7da027f 0ea6a45d2ad1115ce7141f15693139b8bd9e5ffebb5a1321ab8c48e62d65fab9
*See JSON for more IOCs

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella N/A
WSA This has coverage

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Dropper.Remcos-9961392-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 14 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\POULUS 14
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\POULUS\MICROMINIATURISER 14
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\UNINSTALL\BRUGERNAVNETS 14
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\UNINSTALL\BRUGERNAVNETS\TIVOLIET 14
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\POULUS\MICROMINIATURISER
Value Name: Komplettes
14
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\UNINSTALL\BRUGERNAVNETS\TIVOLIET
Value Name: Fins
14
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\[email protected] 7
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\[email protected]
Value Name: licence
7
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\[email protected]
Value Name: exepath
7
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: ornamenterne
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: Hyldetrs
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: lnglidninger
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: Vampirebat
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: Dereferencing
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: Sarkastisk
1
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUNONCE
Value Name: Martyrologistic
1
Mutexes Occurrences
Remcos_Mutex_Inj 7
[email protected] 7
Global\916138a1-15e4-11ed-9660-00151792685a 1
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
5[.]2[.]75[.]164 7
181[.]235[.]13[.]200 4
186[.]169[.]54[.]97 3
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
colpatvalidacionnuevo[.]xyz 7
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%HOMEPATH%\Desktop\Markedness.ini 14
%TEMP%\ns<random, matching '[a-z][A-F0-9]{1,4}'>.tmp 14
%TEMP%\ns<random, matching '[a-z][A-F0-9]{4}'>.tmp\System.dll 14
%TEMP%\logsflat458 7
%TEMP%\logsflat458\sasgs527.dat 7
\TEMP\en-US\22d69844486d029467b528c89bf763a6.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en-US\ef6731323cff411f303c2bd29b9f15c8.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en-US\b2a7538d257a51b1a506b646c248fcbe.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en-US\570979659276a2a985f97f7965f97f76.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en-US\f231d436f8d62de3082ea791da78ed50.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en\f231d436f8d62de3082ea791da78ed50.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en\ef6731323cff411f303c2bd29b9f15c8.exe.mui 1
%TEMP%\Selenitic 1
%TEMP%\Dextroamphetamine 1
%TEMP%\Selenitic\Uncooping.exe 1
%TEMP%\Dextroamphetamine\Lobcokt.exe 1
\TEMP\en\22d69844486d029467b528c89bf763a6.exe.mui 1
%TEMP%\Tiki124 1
%TEMP%\Tiki124\Unexpecting.exe 1
\TEMP\en\b2a7538d257a51b1a506b646c248fcbe.exe.mui 1
\TEMP\en\570979659276a2a985f97f7965f97f76.exe.mui 1
%TEMP%\Sekundrkommunens 1
%TEMP%\Giganter27 1
%TEMP%\Sekundrkommunens\Unpracticability174.exe 1
%TEMP%\Giganter27\Spandauerne.exe 1
*See JSON for more IOCs

File Hashes

125b94822affbd4b1b67333905a91231c62e427334475ada0daa44d007e884c1 332cb82247db85cd4c772200938a7623c4161a15d680157cdc688b53aae2303a 3efb2166b220fd7d7e5df42739d998f6ed4c70fefdcb03b6a9b1810d6dcfcd77 42d77fbb29467078ade8ecba705a648d3d4aeacd5f6735a6d92d17cb55ff7049 6761e346725d0cfa3436b459176ff467f7b4a426af0559845032c912420747cd 72d9be63e832a89a04ffcfb48c30199d3461fe982bde962f57c7cf71e0f5f06a 8c420a6337376e20c987679a34e3d09194e504c444fbf50619328f5c0dda9217 942dcafe7a16cfdd1769048c73590ec2c29e9c76a9f6c46e6b6e88ac2220b0ef 9ead44844a24092afb456478686839852e04cd1ad8e081185ae432f1171baa1b a3ec71d27779875c7262d608c3c5e591fa7c12f0893e006bb6f7d2ad1d710142 a742e0a1f7939fdaf5eb615bac3da040781bd19e84e3f647186314ecb6e0fa5e ce2ff79b4178d9b7f142001bc227753dd395fcd1a28a385bfa379e0857181467 d52c22336b2e2efaeab6b8eb2be8726a36eaea553905b01102d9716d4c6184af e2deccb5d8cc1ec270d95501aaa7e53951bd7f89c2c0bcd50420bf94b7057675

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
Secure Malware Analytics This has coverage
Umbrella This has coverage
WSA This has coverage

Screenshots of Detection

Secure Endpoint



Secure Malware Analytics



MITRE ATT&CK





Win.Dropper.Ramnit-9961396-0

Indicators of Compromise

  • IOCs collected from dynamic analysis of 26 samples
Registry Keys Occurrences
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: AntiVirusOverride
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: AntiVirusDisableNotify
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: FirewallDisableNotify
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: FirewallOverride
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: UpdatesDisableNotify
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\SECURITY CENTER
Value Name: UacDisableNotify
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\POLICIES\SYSTEM
Value Name: EnableLUA
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\SHAREDACCESS\PARAMETERS\FIREWALLPOLICY\STANDARDPROFILE
Value Name: EnableFirewall
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\SHAREDACCESS\PARAMETERS\FIREWALLPOLICY\STANDARDPROFILE
Value Name: DoNotAllowExceptions
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\SHAREDACCESS\PARAMETERS\FIREWALLPOLICY\STANDARDPROFILE
Value Name: DisableNotifications
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WSCSVC
Value Name: Start
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WINDEFEND
Value Name: Start
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\MPSSVC
Value Name: Start
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS NT\CURRENTVERSION
Value Name: jfghdug_ooetvtgk
26
<HKCU>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: JudCsgdy
26
<HKLM>\SYSTEM\CONTROLSET001\SERVICES\WUAUSERV
Value Name: Start
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\RUN
Value Name: Windows Defender
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS NT\CURRENTVERSION\WINLOGON
Value Name: Userinit
26
<HKLM>\SOFTWARE\WOW6432NODE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS NT\CURRENTVERSION\WINLOGON
Value Name: Userinit
26
Mutexes Occurrences
qazwsxedc 26
{7930D12C-1D38-EB63-89CF-4C8161B79ED4} 26
IP Addresses contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
72[.]26[.]218[.]70 25
195[.]201[.]179[.]207 25
208[.]100[.]26[.]245 25
46[.]165[.]220[.]155 25
35[.]205[.]61[.]67 25
142[.]250[.]80[.]14 25
63[.]251[.]235[.]76 25
64[.]225[.]91[.]73 25
Domain Names contacted by malware. Does not indicate maliciousness Occurrences
google[.]com 25
gjvoemsjvb[.]com 25
ahpygyxe[.]com 25
msoalrhvphqrnjv[.]com 25
rdslmvlipid[.]com 25
jpcqdmfvn[.]com 25
rrmlyaviljwuoph[.]com 25
maajnyhst[.]com 25
enbbojmjpss[.]com 25
oqmfrxak[.]com 25
tdccjwtetv[.]com 25
tpxobasr[.]com 25
xpdsuvpcvrcrnwbxqfx[.]com 25
fbrlgikmlriqlvel[.]com 25
boeyrhmrd[.]com 25
ugcukkcpplmouoah[.]com 25
gugendolik[.]com 25
Files and or directories created Occurrences
%LOCALAPPDATA%\bolpidti 26
%LOCALAPPDATA%\bolpidti\judcsgdy.exe 26
%APPDATA%\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup\judcsgdy.exe 26

File Hashes

081742e8ed56a1a933e0507ccd536aaaf7242ac76d47a1a49626ee71c6756b53 0e372167303e500219b580a1a0367d2b69ab693e56934584e05cd963736bd463 10cef31349a4842546edbc5244d0d3aaed1e3c058008800c889abf5dc43ec343 127ee9c2897fb600dec742861451fdcf48820c200e15df7479542ed4232c0584 155b0301ce2f88c396fb7aa77cbc82c51a01660e6a74b63f7ba8dc8f023ea7e8 1e1773938b5bdd08be479ca9186a30d3fad83ea67ae905f391508ac543c2a38f 263351025d462b47660ea4bacd71ae1fd694de45a3d9bd5b14e58be1c4362d00 2e2ac92783031efdde48674b0ed3362c81fac9b25756ee39af1629f39309ccc2 340833674362d0c01995cc8657a95a628fddeb853272b6d89dfcf98bbe106cbe 39b9cfa59e688e1d56e6499b80637f321f777d022dff4a9eaf691ba9a1e9cc86 3cc065b26f54c993606649d1679bca81068c10e3727fdf9ee811fa6a17c1ebad 41b21c4398fa089007a9a34aac8a3f5d14b61814ff036b555cc6b09c8efd81aa 4b183d215f86d026ef2bac0cf5dd4b28146612d52206e358169b0f1d3209c76d 4ed2cf991c4ed810cdbb5d567d33e1f1d94218ae43c506d6b33d2acc35009598 57fa2ea50d27a8cc8feec2867a680ae6e9a0d1a47d117733a73db86da3bf8416 5de59e2cc183ce5f34b2ca66fbd1edce54b3a6208ae7621c49cbd78835bdcbf5 699e006e4a6871ca898aacf55f84c36ea43d8b9e421b71dd20a0fe5a06378d66 6a216904abbf52246819029936c7e8705f50c61ba0ee6a62d8a14881cfca0a33 77aeccd3d538a6effc3623344a331d5190c747489a5cc511d4e7d973e879ff8a 77c966ca4088e8b918b4e40ed539a510fad2a2631ff17d1a1b01a1670e6fa400 79622d5b5ef3c93d32bcaaba64cfbbe4a88ec7f56d1f7f2160b9219321058f29 8c878b6608dba85c650ffda157cc14d885f14559e8c6b38a5ae0be85d5a73001 8d5f17bf76258cf83d0678cef645b0fa2f0b6df56858fb0ec4cab8894b59b316 a1574bfff6cebf0757ab5a7fc7634b7956fed8943e088b87820ff13be65789c4 af0aa7289a5770da3a158d0f0fbea1c5073b6ca4f6fe5a7bebdde44a55ca2c2e
*See JSON for more IOCs

Coverage

Product Protection
Secure Endpoint This has coverage
Cloudlock N/A
CWS This has coverage
Email Security This has coverage
Network Security This has coverage
Stealthwatch N/A
Stealthwatch Cloud N/A
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Researchers Uncover UEFI Secure Boot Bypass in 3 Microsoft Signed Boot Loaders

12 August 2022 at 20:02
A security feature bypass vulnerability has been uncovered in three signed third-party Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) boot loaders that allow bypass of the UEFI Secure Boot feature. "These vulnerabilities can be exploited by mounting the EFI System Partition and replacing the existing bootloader with the vulnerable one, or modifying a UEFI variable to load the vulnerable loader

The US offers a $10M rewards for info on the Conti ransomware gang’s members

12 August 2022 at 17:58

The U.S. State Department announced a $10 million reward for information related to five individuals associated with the Conti ransomware gang.

The U.S. State Department announced a $10 million reward for information on five prominent members of the Conti ransomware gang. The government will also reward people that will provide details about Conti and its affiliated groups TrickBot and Wizard Spider.

The reward is covered by the Rewards of Justice program operated by the a U.S. Department of State which offers rewards for information related to threats to homeland security.

According to Wired, which first reported the announcement, the State Department is looking for the members’ physical locations and vacation and travel plans.

This is the first time that the U.S. Government shows the face of a Conti associate, referred to as “Target.”

“Today marks the first time that the US government has publicly identified a Conti operative,” says a State Department official who asked not to be named and did not provide any more information about Target’s identity beyond the picture. “That photo is the first time the US government has ever identified a malicious actor associated with Conti,” 

The other members of the Conti gang for which the US Government is offering a reward are referred to as “Tramp,” “Dandis,” “Professor,” and “Reshaev.”

The U.S. Government reveals the face of a Conti associate for the first time! We’re trying to put a name with the face!

To the guy in the photo: Imagine how many cool hats you could buy with $10 million dollars!

Write to us via our Tor-based tip line: https://t.co/WvkI416g4W pic.twitter.com/28BgYXYRy2

— Rewards for Justice (@RFJ_USA) August 11, 2022

In February, a Ukrainian researcher leaked 60,694 messages internal chat messages belonging to the Conti ransomware operation after the announcement of the group of its support to Russia..

The leaked files revealed that some high-level members of the gang have connections to Russian intelligence.

The Rewards of Justice program also offer rewards for information on other threat actors, including the REvil ransomware gang, Darkside gang, the Evil Corp, and the North Korea-liked APT groups.

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, Conti ransomware)

The post The US offers a $10M rewards for info on the Conti ransomware gang’s members appeared first on Security Affairs.

Sounding the Alarm on Emergency Alert System Flaws

12 August 2022 at 15:26

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is urging states and localities to beef up security around proprietary devices that connect to the Emergency Alert System — a national public warning system used to deliver important emergency information, such as severe weather and AMBER alerts. The DHS warning came in advance of a workshop to be held this weekend at the DEFCON security conference in Las Vegas, where a security researcher is slated to demonstrate multiple weaknesses in the nationwide alert system.

A Digital Alert Systems EAS encoder/decoder that Pyle said he acquired off eBay in 2019. It had the username and password for the system printed on the machine.

The DHS warning was prompted by security researcher Ken Pyle, a partner at security firm Cybir. Pyle said he started acquiring old EAS equipment off of eBay in 2019, and that he quickly identified a number of serious security vulnerabilities in a device that is broadly used by states and localities to encode and decode EAS alert signals.

“I found all kinds of problems back then, and reported it to the DHS, FBI and the manufacturer,” Pyle said in an interview with KrebsOnSecurity. “But nothing ever happened. I decided I wasn’t going to tell anyone about it yet because I wanted to give people time to fix it.”

Pyle said he took up the research again in earnest after an angry mob stormed the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

“I was sitting there thinking, ‘Holy shit, someone could start a civil war with this thing,”’ Pyle recalled. “I went back to see if this was still a problem, and it turns out it’s still a very big problem. So I decided that unless someone actually makes this public and talks about it, clearly nothing is going to be done about it.”

The EAS encoder/decoder devices Pyle acquired were made by Lyndonville, NY-based Digital Alert Systems (formerly Monroe Electronics, Inc.), which issued a security advisory this month saying it released patches in 2019 to fix the flaws reported by Pyle, but that some customers are still running outdated versions of the device’s firmware. That may be because the patches were included in version 4 of the firmware for the EAS devices, and many older models apparently do not support the new software.

“The vulnerabilities identified present a potentially serious risk, and we believe both were addressed in software updates issued beginning Oct 2019,” EAS said in a written statement. “We also provided attribution for the researcher’s responsible disclosure, allowing us to rectify the matters before making any public statements. We are aware that some users have not taken corrective actions and updated their software and should immediately take action to update the latest software version to ensure they are not at risk. Anything lower than version 4.1 should be updated immediately. On July 20, 2022, the researcher referred to other potential issues, and we trust the researcher will provide more detail. We will evaluate and work to issue any necessary mitigations as quickly as possible.”

But Pyle said a great many EAS stakeholders are still ignoring basic advice from the manufacturer, such as changing default passwords and placing the devices behind a firewall, not directly exposing them to the Internet, and restricting access only to trusted hosts and networks.

Pyle, in a selfie that is heavily redacted because the EAS device behind him had its user credentials printed on the lid.

Pyle said the biggest threat to the security of the EAS is that an attacker would only need to compromise a single EAS station to send out alerts locally that can be picked up by other EAS systems and retransmitted across the nation.

“The process for alerts is automated in most cases, hence, obtaining access to a device will allow you to pivot around,” he said. “There’s no centralized control of the EAS because these devices are designed such that someone locally can issue an alert, but there’s no central control over whether I am the one person who can send or whatever. If you are a local operator, you can send out nationwide alerts. That’s how easy it is to do this.”

One of the Digital Alert Systems devices Pyle sourced from an electronics recycler earlier this year was non-functioning, but whoever discarded it neglected to wipe the hard drive embedded in the machine. Pyle soon discovered the device contained the private cryptographic keys and other credentials needed to send alerts through Comcast, the nation’s third-largest cable company.

“I can issue and create my own alert here, which has all the valid checks or whatever for being a real alert station,” Pyle said in an interview earlier this month. “I can create a message that will start propagating through the EAS.”

Comcast told KrebsOnSecurity that “a third-party device used to deliver EAS alerts was lost in transit by a trusted shipping provider between two Comcast locations and subsequently obtained by a cybersecurity researcher.

“We’ve conducted a thorough investigation of this matter and have determined that no customer data, and no sensitive Comcast data, were compromised,” Comcast spokesperson David McGuire said.

The company said it also confirmed that the information included on the device can no longer be used to send false messages to Comcast customers or used to compromise devices within Comcast’s network, including EAS devices.

“We are taking steps to further ensure secure transfer of such devices going forward,” McGuire said. “Separately, we have conducted a thorough audit of all EAS devices on our network and confirmed that they are updated with currently available patches and are therefore not vulnerable to recently reported security issues. We’re grateful for the responsible disclosure and to the security research community for continuing to engage and share information with our teams to make our products and technologies ever more secure. Mr. Pyle informed us promptly of his research and worked with us as we took steps to validate his findings and ensure the security of our systems.”

The user interface for an EAS device.

Unauthorized EAS broadcast alerts have happened enough that there is a chronicle of EAS compromises over at fandom.com. Thankfully, most of these incidents have involved fairly obvious hoaxes.

According to the EAS wiki, in February 2013, hackers broke into the EAS networks in Great Falls, Mt. and Marquette, Mich. to broadcast an alert that zombies had risen from their graves in several counties. In Feb. 2017, an EAS station in Indiana also was hacked, with the intruders playing the same “zombies and dead bodies” audio from the 2013 incidents.

“On February 20 and February 21, 2020, Wave Broadband’s EASyCAP equipment was hacked due to the equipment’s default password not being changed,” the Wiki states. “Four alerts were broadcasted, two of which consisted of a Radiological Hazard Warning and a Required Monthly Test playing parts of the Hip Hop song Hot by artist Young Thug.”

In January 2018, Hawaii sent out an alert to cell phones, televisions and radios, warning everyone in the state that a missile was headed their way. It took 38 minutes for Hawaii to let people know the alert was a misfire, and that a draft alert was inadvertently sent. The news video clip below about the 2018 event in Hawaii does a good job of walking through how the EAS works.

OffensiveVBA - Code Execution And AV Evasion Methods For Macros In Office Documents

12 August 2022 at 12:30
By: Zion3R


In preparation for a VBS AV Evasion Stream/Video I was doing some research for Office Macro code execution methods and evasion techniques.

The list got longer and longer and I found no central place for offensive VBA templates - so this repo can be used for such. It is very far away from being complete. If you know any other cool technique or useful template feel free to contribute and create a pull request!

Most of the templates in this repo were already published somewhere. I just copy pasted most templates from ms-docs sites, blog posts or from other tools.


Templates in this repo

File Description
ShellApplication_ShellExecute.vba Execute an OS command via ShellApplication object and ShellExecute method
ShellApplication_ShellExecute_privileged.vba Execute an privileged OS command via ShellApplication object and ShellExecute method - UAC prompt
Shellcode_CreateThread.vba Execute shellcode in the current process via Win32 CreateThread
Shellcode_EnumChildWindowsCallback.vba Execute shellcode in the current process via EnumChildWindows
Win32_CreateProcess.vba Create a new process for code execution via Win32 CreateProcess function
Win32_ShellExecute.vba Create a new process for code execution via Win32 ShellExecute function
WMI_Process_Create.vba Create a new process via WMI for code execution
WMI_Process_Create2.vba Another WMI code execution example
WscriptShell_Exec.vba Execute an OS command via WscriptShell object and Exec method
WscriptShell_run.vba Execute an OS command via WscriptShell object and Run method
VBA-RunPE @itm4n's RunPE technique in VBA
GadgetToJScript med0x2e's C# script for generating .NET serialized gadgets that can trigger .NET assembly load/execution when deserialized using BinaryFormatter from JS/VBS/VBA based scripts.
PPID_Spoof.vba christophetd's spoofing-office-macro copy
AMSIBypass_AmsiScanBuffer_ordinal.vba rmdavy's AMSI Bypass to patch AmsiScanBuffer using ordinal values for a signature bypass
AMSIBypass_AmsiScanBuffer_Classic.vba rasta-mouse's classic AmsiScanBuffer patch
AMSIBypass_Heap.vba rmdavy's HeapsOfFun repo copy
AMSIbypasses.vba outflanknl's AMSI bypass blog
COMHijack_DLL_Load.vba Load DLL via COM Hijacking
COM_Process_create.vba Create process via COM object
Download_Autostart.vba Download a file from a remote webserver and put it into the StartUp folder
Download_Autostart_WinAPI.vba Download a file from a remote webserver via URLDownloadtoFileA and put it into the StartUp folder
Dropper_Autostart.vba Drop batch file into the StartUp folder
Registry_Persist_wmi.vba Create StartUp registry key for persistence via WMI
Registry_Persist_wscript.vba Create StartUp registry key for persistence via wscript object
ScheduledTask_Create.vba Create and start sheduled task for code execution/persistence
XMLDOM_Load_XSL_Process_create.vba Load XSL from a remote webserver to execute code
regsvr32_sct_DownloadExecute.vba Execute regsvr32 to download a remote webservers SCT file for code execution
BlockETW.vba Patch EtwEventWrite in ntdll.dll to block ETW data collection
BlockETW_COMPLUS_ETWEnabled_ENV.vba Block ETW data collection by setting the environment variable COMPLUS_ETWEnabled to 0, credit to @xpn
ShellWindows_Process_create.vba ShellWindows Process create to get explorer.exe as parent process
AES.vba An example to use AES encryption/decryption in VBA from Here
Dropper_Executable_Autostart.vba Get executable bytes from VBA and drop into Autostart - no download in this case
MarauderDrop.vba Drop a COM registered .NET DLL into temp, import the function and execute code - in this case loads a remote C# binary from a webserver to memory and executes it - credit to @Jean_Maes_1994 for MaraudersMap
Dropper_Workfolders_lolbas_Execute.vba Drop an embedded executable into the TEMP directory and execute it using C:\windows\system32\Workfolders.exe as LOLBAS - credit to @YoSignals
SandBoxEvasion Some SandBox Evasion templates
Evasion Dropper Autostart.vba Drops a file to the Startup directory bypassing file write monitoring via renamed folder operation
Evasion MsiInstallProduct.vba Installs a remote MSI package using WindowsInstaller ActiveXObject avoiding spawning suspicious office child process, the msi installation will be executed as a child of the MSIEXEC /V service
StealNetNTLMv2.vba Steal NetNTLMv2 Hash via share connection - credit to https://book.hacktricks.xyz/windows/ntlm/places-to-steal-ntlm-creds
Parse-Outlook.vba Parses Outlook for sensitive keywords and file extensions, and exfils them via email - credit to JohnWoodman
Reverse-Shell.vba Reverse shell written entirely in VBA using Windows API calls - credit to JohnWoodman

Missing - ToDos

File Description
Unhooker.vba Unhook API's in memory to get rid of hooks
Syscalls.vba Syscall usage - fresh from disk or Syswhispers like
Manymore.vba If you have any more ideas feel free to contribute

Obfuscators / Payload generators

  1. VBad
  2. wePWNise
  3. VisualBasicObfuscator - needs some modification as it doesn't split up lines and is therefore not usable for office document macros
  4. macro_pack
  5. shellcode2vbscript.py
  6. EvilClippy
  7. OfficePurge
  8. SharpShooter
  9. VBS-Obfuscator-in-Python - - needs some modification as it doesn't split up lines and is therefore not usable for office document macros

Credits / usefull resources

ASR bypass: http://blog.sevagas.com/IMG/pdf/bypass_windows_defender_attack_surface_reduction.pdf

Shellcode to VBScript conversion: https://github.com/DidierStevens/DidierStevensSuite/blob/master/shellcode2vbscript.py

Bypass AMSI in VBA: https://outflank.nl/blog/2019/04/17/bypassing-amsi-for-vba/

VBA purging: https://www.mandiant.com/resources/purgalicious-vba-macro-obfuscation-with-vba-purging

F-Secure VBA Evasion and detection post: https://blog.f-secure.com/dechaining-macros-and-evading-edr/

One more F-Secure blog: https://labs.f-secure.com/archive/dll-tricks-with-vba-to-improve-offensive-macro-capability/



Xiaomi Phones with MediaTek Chips Found Vulnerable to Forged Payments

12 August 2022 at 12:20
Security flaws have been identified in Xiaomi Redmi Note 9T and Redmi Note 11 models, which could be exploited to disable the mobile payment mechanism and even forge transactions via a rogue Android app installed on the devices. Check Point said it found the flaws in devices powered by MediaTek chipsets during a security analysis of the Chinese handset maker's "Kinibi" Trusted Execution

U.S. Government Offers $10 Million Reward for Information on Conti Ransomware Gang

12 August 2022 at 10:30
The U.S. State Department on Thursday announced a $10 million reward for information related to five individuals associated with the Conti ransomware group. The reward offer is also notable for the fact that it marks the first time the face of a Conti associate, known as "Target," has been unmasked. The four other alleged members have been referred to as "Tramp," "Dandis," "Professor," and "

Facebook Testing Default End-to-End Encryption and Encrypted Backups in Messenger

12 August 2022 at 09:09
Social media company Meta said it will begin testing end-to-end encryption (E2EE) on its Messenger platform this week for select users as the default option, as the company continues to slowly add security layers to its various chat services. "If you're in the test group, some of your most frequent chats may be automatically end-to-end encrypted, which means you won't have to opt in to the

Cisco Patches High-Severity Vulnerability Affecting ASA and Firepower Solutions

12 August 2022 at 08:14
Cisco on Wednesday released patches to contain multiple flaws in its software that could be abused to leak sensitive information on susceptible appliances. The issue, assigned the identifier CVE-2022-20866 (CVSS score: 7.4), has been described as a "logic error" when handling RSA keys on devices running Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) Software and Cisco Firepower Threat Defense (FTD)

Fast and Secure VPN on a Budget? Private Internet Access VPN Has You Covered

12 August 2022 at 08:10
Back when the internet consisted of a handful of computers networked together across a few research institutions, nobody could have imagined that it would one day form the backbone of a new digital way of life. And that probably explains why none of the researchers who thought up its core technologies — things like packet switching and TCP/IP — gave much consideration to the need to secure the

Experts warn of mass exploitation of an RCE flaw in Zimbra Collaboration Suite

12 August 2022 at 08:00

Threat actors are exploiting an authentication bypass Zimbra flaw, tracked as CVE-2022-27925, to hack Zimbra Collaboration Suite email servers worldwide.

An authentication bypass affecting Zimbra Collaboration Suite, tracked as CVE-2022-27925, is actively exploited to hack ZCS email servers worldwide.

Zimbra is an email and collaboration platform used by more than 200,000 businesses from over 140 countries.

Yesterday, August 11, CISA has added two new vulnerabilities to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, based on evidence of active exploitation. The two issues are:

  • CVE-2022-27925 (CVSS score: 7.2) – Zimbra Collaboration (ZCS) Arbitrary File Upload Vulnerability: Zimbra Collaboration (ZCS) contains flaw in the mboximport functionality, allowing an authenticated attacker to upload arbitrary files to perform remote code execution. This vulnerability was chained with CVE-2022-37042 which allows for unauthenticated remote code execution.
  • CVE-2022-37042 – Zimbra Collaboration (ZCS) Authentication Bypass Vulnerability: Zimbra Collaboration (ZCS) contains an authentication bypass vulnerability in MailboxImportServlet. This vulnerability was chained with CVE-2022-27925 which allows for unauthenticated remote code execution.

CISA orders federal agencies to fix both issues by August 25, 2022.

The vendor has already released security updates to address both vulnerabilities.

Cybersecurity firm Volexity described confirmed that the flaw is actively exploited in attacks in the wild.

In July and early August 2022, the company worked on multiple incidents where the organizations had their Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) email servers compromised. Volexity discovered that threat actors have exploited the CVE-2022-27925 remote-code-execution (RCE) vulnerability in these attacks.

The flaw was patched in March 2022, since the release of security fixes, it was reasonable that threat actors performed reverse engineering of them and developed an exploit code.

“As each investigation progressed, Volexity found signs of remote exploitation but no evidence the attackers had the prerequisite authenticated administrative sessions needed to exploit it. Further, in most cases, Volexity believed it extremely unlikely the remote attackers would have been able to obtain administrative credentials on the victims’ ZCS email servers.” reads the advisory published by Volexity.

“As a result of the above findings, Volexity initiated more research into determining a means to exploit CVE-2022-27925, and if it was possible to do so without an authenticated administrative session. Subsequent testing by Volexity determined it was possible to bypass authentication when accessing the same endpoint (mboximport) used by CVE-2022-27925. This meant that CVE-2022-27925 could be exploited without valid administrative credentials, thus making the vulnerability significantly more critical in severity.” reads the post published by Volexity.

Volexity researchers scanned the Internet for compromised Zimbra instances belonging to non-Volexity customers. The security firm identified over 1,000 ZCS instances around the world that were backdoored and compromised. The compromised ZCS installs belongs to a variety of global organizations, including government departments and ministries, military branches, worldwide billionaire businesses, and a significant number of small businesses.

Zimbra

The countries with the most compromised instances include the U.S., Italy, Germany, France, India, Russia, Indonesia, Switzerland, Spain, and Poland.

“CVE-2022-27925 was originally listed as an RCE exploit requiring authentication. When combined with a separate bug, however, it became an unauthenticated RCE exploit that made remote exploitation trivial. Some organizations may prioritize patching based on the severity of security issues. In this case, the vulnerability was listed as medium—not high or critical—which may have led some organizations to postpone patching.” concludes the post.

A few days ago, CISA added a recently disclosed flaw in the Zimbra email suite, tracked as CVE-2022-27924, to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog.

In middle June, researchers from Sonarsource discovered the high-severity vulnerability impacting the Zimbra email suite, tracked as CVE-2022-27924 (CVSS score: 7.5). It can be exploited by an unauthenticated attacker to steal login credentials of users without user interaction.

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, RCE)

The post Experts warn of mass exploitation of an RCE flaw in Zimbra Collaboration Suite appeared first on Security Affairs.

BazarCall attacks have revolutionized ransomware operations

12 August 2022 at 06:25

The Conti ransomware gang is using BazarCall phishing attacks as an initial attack vector to access targeted networks.

BazarCall attack, aka call back phishing, is an attack vector that utilizes targeted phishing methodology and was first used by the Ryuk ransomware gang in 2020/2021.

The BazarCall attack chain is composed of the following stages:

  • Stage One. Attackers send a mail to the victims that notify them that they have subscribed to a service for which payment is automatic. The email includes a phone number to call to cancel the subscription.
  • Stage Two. The victim is tricked into contacting a special call center. When operators receive a call, they use a variety of social engineering tactics, to convince victims to give remote desktop control, to help them cancel their subscription service.
  • Stage Three. Once accessed the victim’s desktop, the attacker silently extended a foothold in the user’s network, weaponizing legitimate tools that are known to be in Conti’s arsenal. The initial operator remains on the line with the victim, pretending to assist them with the remote desktop access by continuing to utilize social engineering tactics.
  • Stage Four. The initiated malware session yields the adversary access as an initial point of entry into the victim’s network.
bazarcall conti

The researchers at cybersecurity firm AdbIntel state that currently at least three autonomous threat groups are adopting and independently developing their own targeted phishing tactics derived from the call back phishing methodology. The three groups are tracked as Silent Ransom, Quantum, and Roy/Zeon, they emerged after the Conti gang opted to shut down its operation in May 2022.

In March 2022, formed members of the Conti, who were experts in call back phishing attacks, created “Silent Ransom” when it became an autonomous group.

Silent Ransom’s previous bosses, tracked as Conti Team Two, who were the main Conti subdivision, rebranded as Quantum and launched their own version of call back phishing campaigns. On June 13, 2022, AdvIntel researchers uncovered a massive operation called “Jörmungandr”.

The third iteration of the BazarCall group was observed in late June 20 and goes by the name of Roy/Zeon. The group is composed of old-Guard members of Conti’s “Team One,” which created the Ryuk operation. This group has the advanced social engineering capabilities of the three groups.

It involved large investments into hiring spammers, OSINT specialists, designers, call center operators, and expanding the number of network intruders. As a highly skilled (and most likely government-affiliated) group, Quantum was able to purchase exclusive email datasets and manually parse them to identify relevant employees at high-profile companies.

bazarcall

The adoption of Callback phishing campaigns has impacted the strategy of ransomware gangs, experts observed targeted attacks aimed at Finance, Technology, Legal, and Insurance industries. The industries are considered privileged targets in almost all internal manuals, which were shared between ex-Conti members.

“Since its resurgence in March earlier this year, call back phishing has entirely revolutionized the current threat landscape and forced its threat actors to reevaluate and update their methodologies of attack in order to stay on top of the new ransomware food chain.” concludes the report published by Advintel. “Although the first to begin using this TTP as its primary initial attack vector, Silent Ransom is no longer the only threat group utilizing the highly specified phishing operations that they pioneered. Other threat groups, seeing the success, efficiency, and targeting capabilities of the tactic have begun using reversed phishing campaign as a base and developing the attack vector into their own.”

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, Conti)

The post BazarCall attacks have revolutionized ransomware operations appeared first on Security Affairs.

Researchers Warn of Ongoing Mass Exploitation of Zimbra RCE Vulnerability

12 August 2022 at 06:14
The U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) on Thursday added two flaws to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog, citing evidence of active exploitation. The two high-severity issues relate to weaknesses in Zimbra Collaboration, both of which could be chained to achieve unauthenticated remote code execution on affected email servers - CVE-2022-27925 (CVSS score: 7.2)
Before yesterdayMain stream

New Disclosure Timelines for Bugs Resulting from Incomplete Patches

11 August 2022 at 19:00

Today at the Black Hat USA conference, we announced some new disclosure timelines. Our standard 120-day disclosure timeline for most vulnerabilities remains, but for bug reports that result from faulty or incomplete patches, we will use a shorter timeline. Moving forward, the ZDI will adopt a tiered approach based on the severity of the bug and the efficacy of the original fix. The first tier will be a 30-day timeframe for most Critical-rated cases where exploitation is detected or expected. The second level will be a 60-day interval for Critical- and High-severity bugs where the patch offers some protections. Finally, there will be a 90-day period for other severities where no imminent exploitation is expected. As with our normal timelines, extensions will be limited and granted on a case-by-case basis.

Since 2005, the ZDI has disclosed more than 10,000 vulnerabilities to countless vendors. These bug reports and subsequent patches allow us to speak from vast experience when it comes to the topic of bug disclosure. Over the last few years, we’ve noticed a disturbing trend – a decrease in patch quality and a reduction in communications surrounding the patch. This has resulted in enterprises losing their ability to accurately estimate the risk to their systems. It’s also costing them money and resources as bad patches get re-released and thus re-applied.

Adjusting our disclosure timelines is one of the few areas that we as a disclosure wholesaler can control, and it’s something we have used in the past with positive results. For example, our disclosure timeline used to be 180 days. However, based on data we tracked through vulnerability disclosure and patch release, we were able to lower that to 120 days, which helped reduce the vendor’s overall time-to-fix. Moving forward, we will be tracking failed patches more closely and will make future policy adjustments based on the data we collect.

Another thing we announced today is the creation of a new Twitter handle: @thezdibugs. This feed will only tweet out published advisories that are either a high CVSS, 0-day, or resulting from Pwn2Own. If you’re interested in those types of bug reports, we ask that you give it a follow. We’re also now on Instagram, and you can follow us there if you prefer that platform over Twitter.

Looking at our published and upcoming bug reports, we are on track for our busiest year ever – for the third year in a row. That also means we’ll have plenty of data to look at as we track incomplete or otherwise faulty patches, and we’ll use this data to adjust these timelines as needed based on what we are seeing across the industry. Other groups may have different timelines, but this is our starting point. With an estimated 1,700 disclosures this year alone, we should be able to gather plenty of metrics. Hopefully, we will see improvements as time goes on.

Until then, stay tuned to this blog for updates, subscribe to our YouTube channel, and follow us on Twitter for the latest news and research from the ZDI. 

New Disclosure Timelines for Bugs Resulting from Incomplete Patches

Threat Source newsletter (Aug. 11, 2022) — All of the things-as-a-service

11 August 2022 at 18:00

By Jon Munshaw. 

Welcome to this week’s edition of the Threat Source newsletter. 

Everyone seems to want to create the next “Netflix” of something. Xbox’s Game Pass is the “Netflix of video games.” Rent the Runway is a “Netflix of fashion” where customers subscribe to a rotation of fancy clothes. 

And now threat actors are looking to be the “Netflix of malware.” All categories of malware have some sort of "as-a-service" twist now. Some of the largest ransomware groups in the world operate “as a service,” allowing smaller groups to pay a fee in exchange for using the larger group’s tools.  

Our latest report on information-stealers points out that “infostealers as-a-service" are growing in popularity, and our researchers also discovered a new “C2 as-a-service" platform where attackers can pay to have this third-party site act as their command and control. And like Netflix, this Dark Utilities site offers several other layers of tools and malware to choose from. This is a particularly scary trend to me because of how easy — relatively speaking — this makes things for anyone with a basic knowledge of computers to carry out a cyber attack. Netflix made it easy for people like my Grandma to find everything she needs in one place to watch anything from throwback shows like “Night Rider” to the live action of “Shrek: The Musical” and everything in between.  

How much longer before anyone with access to the internet can log into a singular dark web site and surf for whatever they’re in the mood for that day? As someone who has spent zero time on the actual dark web, this may already exist and I don’t even know about it, but maybe a threat actor will one day be smart enough to make a website that looks as sleek as Netflix so you can scroll through suggestions and hand-pick the Redline information-stealer followed up by a relaxing evening of ransomware from Conti.  

With everything going “as a service” it means I don’t necessarily have to have the coding skills to create my own bespoke malware. So long as I have the cash, I could conceivably buy an out-of-the-box tool online and deploy it against whoever I want.  

This is not necessarily as easy as picking a show on Netflix. But it’s not a huge leap to look at the skills gap Netflix closes by allowing my Grandma to surf for any show she wants without having to scroll through cable channels or drive to the library to check out a DVD, and someone who knows how to use PowerShell being able to launch an “as-a-service" ransomware attack.  

I have no idea what the easy solution is here aside from all the traditional forms of detection and prevention we preach. Outside of direct law enforcement intervention, there are few ways to take these “as a service” platforms offline. Maybe that just means we need to start working on the “Netflix of cybersecurity tools.” 
  

The one big thing 


Historically, cybercrime was considered white-collar criminal behavior perpetrated by those that were knowledgeable and turned bad. Now, technology has become such an integral part of our lives that anyone with a smartphone and desire can get started in cybercrime. The growth of cryptocurrencies and associated anonymity, whether legitimate or not, has garnered the attention of criminals that formerly operated in traditional criminal enterprises and have now shifted to cybercrime and identity theft. New research from Talos indicates that small-time criminals are increasingly taking part in online crime like phishing, credit card scams and more in favor of traditional “hands-on” crime. 

Why do I care? 

Everyone panics when the local news shows a graph with “violent crime” increasing in our respective areas. So we should be just as worried about the increase in cybercrime over the past few years, and the potential for it to grow. As mentioned above, “as a service” malware offerings have made it easier for anyone with internet access to carry out a cyber attack and deploy ransomware or just try to scam someone out of a few thousand dollars.  

So now what? 

Law enforcement, especially at the local level, is going to need to evolve along with the criminals as they are tasked with protecting the general public. The future criminal is going to be aware of operational security and technologies like Tor to make their arrests increasingly difficult. This is just as good a time as any to remember to talk to your family about cybersecurity and internet safety. Remind family members about common types of scams like the classic “I’m in the hospital and need money.” 

 

Other news of note


Microsoft Patch Tuesday was headlined by another zero-day vulnerability in the Microsoft Support Diagnostics Tool (MSDT). CVE-2022-35743 and CVE-2022-34713 are remote code execution vulnerabilities in MSDT. However, only CVE-2022-34713 has been exploited in the wild and Microsoft considers it “more likely” to be exploited. MSDT was already the target of the so-called “Follina” zero-day vulnerability in June. In all, Microsoft patched more than 120 vulnerabilities across all its products. Adobe also released updates to fix 25 vulnerabilities on Tuesday, mainly in Adobe Acrobat Reader. One critical vulnerability could lead to arbitrary code execution and memory leak. (Talos blog, Krebs on Security, SecurityWeek

Some of the U.K.’s 111 services were disrupted earlier this week after a suspected cyber attack against its managed service provider. The country’s National Health System warned residents that some emergency calls could be delayed and others could not schedule health appointments. Advance, the target of the attack, said it was investigating the potential theft of patient data. As of Thursday morning, at least nine NHS mental health trusts could face up to three weeks without access to vulnerable patients’ records, though the incident has been “contained.” (SC Magazine, Bloomberg, The Guardian

An 18-year-old and her mother are facing charges in Nebraska over an alleged medicated abortion based on information obtained from Facebook messages. Court records indicate state law enforcement submitted a search warrant to Meta, the parent company of Facebook, demanding all private data, including messages, that the company had for the two people charged. The contents of those messages were then used as the basis of a second search warrant, in which additional computers and devices were confiscated. Although the investigation began before the U.S. Supreme Court’s reversal of Roe v. Wade, the case highlights a renewed focus on digital privacy and data storage. (Vice, CNN

Can’t get enough Talos? 


Upcoming events where you can find Talos 


USENIX Security '22 (Aug. 10 - 12, 2022) 
Las Vegas, Nevada 

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Las Vegas, Nevada 

Virtual 

Most prevalent malware files from Talos telemetry over the past week  


SHA 256: e4973db44081591e9bff5117946defbef6041397e56164f485cf8ec57b1d8934  
MD5: 93fefc3e88ffb78abb36365fa5cf857c  
Typical Filename: Wextract  
Claimed Product: Internet Explorer  
Detection Name: PUA.Win.Trojan.Generic::85.lp.ret.sbx.tg  

MD5: 2c8ea737a232fd03ab80db672d50a17a    
Typical Filename: LwssPlayer.scr    
Claimed Product: 梦想之巅幻灯播放器    
Detection Name: Auto.125E12.241442.in02    

MD5: a087b2e6ec57b08c0d0750c60f96a74c     
Typical Filename: AAct.exe     
Claimed Product: N/A       
Detection Name: PUA.Win.Tool.Kmsauto::1201  

MD5: 8c69830a50fb85d8a794fa46643493b2  
Typical Filename: AAct.exe  
Claimed Product: N/A   
Detection Name: PUA.Win.Dropper.Generic::1201  

MD5: 311d64e4892f75019ee257b8377c723e  
Typical Filename: ultrasurf-21-32.exe  
Claimed Product: N/A    
Detection Name: W32.DFC.MalParent 

Palo Alto Networks warns of Reflected Amplification DoS issue in PAN-OS

11 August 2022 at 17:58

Palo Alto Networks devices running the PAN-OS are abused to launch reflected amplification denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.

Threat actors are exploiting a vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2022-0028 (CVSS score of 8.6), in Palo Alto Networks devices running the PAN-OS to launch reflected amplification denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.

The vendor has learned that firewalls from multiple vendors are abused to conduct distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, but it did not disclose the name of the impacted companies.

“Palo Alto Networks recently learned that an attempted reflected denial-of-service (RDoS) attack was identified by a service provider. This attempted attack took advantage of susceptible firewalls from multiple vendors, including Palo Alto Networks. We immediately started to root cause and remediate this issue.” reads the advisory published by Palo Alto Networks. “Exploitation of this issue does not impact the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of our products.

The root cause of the issue affecting the Palo Alto Network devices is a misconfiguration in the PAN-OS URL filtering policy that allows a network-based attacker to conduct reflected and amplified TCP DoS attacks. The DoS attack would appear to originate from a Palo Alto Networks PA-Series (hardware), VM-Series (virtual) and CN-Series (container) firewall against a target chosen by the attackers.

Palo Alto Networks GlobalProtect VPN

The issue could be exploited if the firewall configuration has a URL filtering profile with one or more blocked categories assigned to a security rule with a source zone that has an external facing network interface.

The flaw can be mitigated by removing the URL filtering policy, the company also recommends enabling only one security feature between packet-based attack protection and flood protection on their Palo Alto.

If exploited, this flaw would not impact the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of Palo Alto Networks products. However, the company pointed out that the resulting denial-of-service (DoS) attack may allow threat actors to hide their identity and implicate the firewall as the source of the attack.

Below is the Product Status shared by the vendor:

Versions Affected Unaffected
Cloud NGFW None All
PAN-OS 10.2 < 10.2.2-h2 >= 10.2.2-h2 (ETA: week of August 15, 2022)
PAN-OS 10.1 < 10.1.6-h6 >= 10.1.6-h6
PAN-OS 10.0 < 10.0.11-h1 >= 10.0.11-h1 (ETA: week of August 15, 2022)
PAN-OS 9.1 < 9.1.14-h4 >= 9.1.14-h4 (ETA: week of August 15, 2022)
PAN-OS 9.0 < 9.0.16-h3 >= 9.0.16-h3 (ETA: week of August 15, 2022)
PAN-OS 8.1 < 8.1.23-h1 >= 8.1.23-h1 (ETA: August 15, 2022)
Prisma Access 3.1 None All
Prisma Access 3.0 None All
Prisma Access 2.2 None All
Prisma Access 2.1 None All

The US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) also published a security advisory to warn of this vulnerability.

“Palo Alto Networks has released a security update to address a vulnerability in PAN-OS firewall configurations. A remote attacker could exploit this vulnerability to conduct a reflected denial-of service,” reads the advisory published by CISA.

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, CVE-2022-0028)

The post Palo Alto Networks warns of Reflected Amplification DoS issue in PAN-OS appeared first on Security Affairs.

Conti Cybercrime Cartel Using 'BazarCall' Phishing Attacks as Initial Attack Vector

11 August 2022 at 17:52
A trio of offshoots from the notorious Conti cybercrime cartel have resorted to the technique of call-back phishing as an initial access vector to breach targeted networks. "Three autonomous threat groups have since adopted and independently developed their own targeted phishing tactics derived from the call back phishing methodology," cybersecurity firm AdvIntel said in a Wednesday report.
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