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Before yesterdayPavel Yosifovich

Next COM Programming Class

5 February 2022 at 10:42

Update: the class is cancelled. I guess there weren’t that many people interested in COM this time around.

Today I’m opening registration for the COM Programming class to be held in April. The syllabus for the 3 day class can be found here. The course will be delivered in 6 half-days (4 hours each).

Dates: April (25, 26, 27, 28), May (2, 3).
Times: 2pm to 6pm, London time
Cost: 700 USD (if paid by an individual), 1300 USD (if paid by a company).

The class will be conducted remotely using Microsoft Teams or a similar platform.

What you need to know before the class: You should be comfortable using Windows on a Power User level. Concepts such as processes, threads, DLLs, and virtual memory should be understood fairly well. You should have experience writing code in C and some C++. You don’t have to be an expert, but you must know C and basic C++ to get the most out of this class. In case you have doubts, talk to me.

Participants in my Windows Internals and Windows System Programming classes have the required knowledge for the class.

We’ll start by looking at why COM was created in the first place, and then build clients and servers, digging into various mechanisms COM provides. See the syllabus for more details.

Previous students in my classes get 10% off. Multiple participants from the same company get a discount (email me for the details).

To register, send an email to [email protected] with the title “COM Training”, and write the name(s), email(s) and time zone(s) of the participants.

COMReuse

zodiacon

Registration is open for the Windows Internals training

16 March 2022 at 13:13

My schedule has been a mess in recent months, and continues to be so for the next few months. However, I am opening registration today for the Windows Internals training with some date changes from my initial plan.

Here are the dates and times (all based on London time) – 5 days total:

  • July 6: 4pm to 12am (full day)
  • July 7: 4pm to 8pm
  • July 11: 4pm to 12am (full day)
  • July 12, 13, 14, 18, 19: 4pm to 8pm

Training cost is 800 USD, if paid by an individual, or 1500 USD if paid by a company. Participants from Ukraine (please provide some proof) are welcome with a 90% discount (paying 80 USD, individual payments only).

If you’d like to register, please send me an email to [email protected] with “Windows Internals training” in the title, provide your full name, company (if any), preferred contact email, and your time zone. The basic syllabus can be found here. if you’ve sent me an email before when I posted about my upcoming classes, you don’t have to do that again – I will send full details soon.

The sessions will be recorded, so can watch any part you may be missing, or that may be somewhat overwhelming in “real time”.

As usual, if you have any questions, feel free to send me an email, or DM me on twitter (@zodiacon) or Linkedin (https://www.linkedin.com/in/pavely/).

Kernel2

zodiacon

Threads, Threads, and More Threads

21 March 2022 at 11:00

Looking at a typical Windows system shows thousands of threads, with process numbers in the hundreds, even though the total CPU consumption is low, meaning most of these threads are doing nothing most of the time. I typically rant about it in my Windows Internals classes. Why so many threads?

Here is a snapshot of my Task Manager showing the total number of threads and processes:

Showing processes details and sorting by thread count looks something like this:

The System process clearly has many threads. These are kernel threads created by the kernel itself and by device drivers. These threads are always running in kernel mode. For this post, I’ll disregard the System process and focus on “normal” user-mode processes.

There are other kernel processes that we should ignore, such as Registry and Memory Compression. Registry has few threads, but Memory Compression has many. It’s not shown in Task Manager (by design), but is shown in other tools, such as Process Explorer. While I’m writing this post, it has 78 threads. We should probably skip that process as well as being “out of our control”.

Notice the large number of threads in processes running the images Explorer.exe, SearchIndexer.exe, Nvidia Web helper.exe, Outlook.exe, Powerpnt.exe and MsMpEng.exe. Let’s write some code to calculate the average number of threads in a process and the standard deviation:

float ComputeStdDev(std::vector<int> const& values, float& average) {
	float total = 0;
	std::for_each(values.begin(), values.end(), 
		[&](int n) { total += n; });
	average = total / values.size();
	total = 0;
	std::for_each(values.begin(), values.end(), 
		[&](int n) { total += (n - average) * (n - average); });
	return std::sqrt(total / values.size());
}

int main() {
	auto hSnapshot = ::CreateToolhelp32Snapshot(TH32CS_SNAPPROCESS, 0);
	
	PROCESSENTRY32 pe;
	pe.dwSize = sizeof(pe);

	// skip the idle process
	::Process32First(hSnapshot, &pe);

	int processes = 0, threads = 0;
	std::vector<int> threads_per_process;
	threads_per_process.reserve(500);
	while (::Process32Next(hSnapshot, &pe)) {
		processes++;
		threads += pe.cntThreads;
		threads_per_process.push_back(pe.cntThreads);
	}
	::CloseHandle(hSnapshot);

	assert(processes == threads_per_process.size());

	printf("Process: %d Threads: %d\n", processes, threads);
	float average;
	auto sd = ComputeStdDev(threads_per_process, average);
	printf("Average threads/process: %.2f\n", average);
	printf("Std. Dev.: %.2f\n", sd);

	return 0;
}

The ComputeStdDev function computes the standard deviation and average of a vector of integers. The main function uses the ToolHelp API to enumerate processes in the system, which fortunately also provides the number of threads in each processes (stored in the threads_per_process vector. If I run this (no processes removed just yet), this is what I get:

Process: 525 Threads: 7810
Average threads/process: 14.88
Std. Dev.: 23.38

Almost 15 threads per process, with little CPU consumption in my Task Manager. The standard deviation is more telling – it’s big compared to the average, which suggests that many processes are far from the average in their thread consumption. And since a negative thread count is not possible (even zero is almost impossible), the the divergence is with higher thread numbers.

To be fair, let’s remove the System and Memory Compression processes from our calculations. Here are the changes to the while loop:

while (::Process32Next(hSnapshot, &pe)) {
	if (pe.th32ProcessID == 4 || _wcsicmp(pe.szExeFile, L"memory compression") == 0)
		continue;
//...

Here are the results:

Process: 521 Threads: 7412
Average threads/process: 14.23
Std. Dev.: 14.14

The standard deviation is definitely smaller, but still pretty big (close to the average), which does not invalidate the previous point. Some processes use lots of threads.

In an ideal world, the number of threads in a system would be the same as the number of logical processors – any more and threads might fight over processors, any less and you’re not using the full power of the machine. Obviously, each “normal” process must have at least one thread running whatever main function is available in the executable, so on my system 521 threads would be the minimum number of threads. Still – we have over 7000.

What are these threads doing, anyway? Let’s examine some processes. First, an Explorer.exe process. Here is the Threads tab shown in Process Explorer:

Thread list in Explorer.exe instance

93 threads. I’ve sorted the list by Start Address to get a sense of the common functions used. Let’s dig into some of them. One of the most common (in other processes as well) is ntdll!TppWorkerThread – this is a thread pool thread, likely waiting for work. Clicking the Stack button (or double clicking the entry in the list) shows the following call stack:

ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapContext+0x76
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapThread+0x500
ntoskrnl.exe!KiCommitThreadWait+0x14f
ntoskrnl.exe!KeWaitForSingleObject+0x233
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSchedulerApc+0x3bd
ntoskrnl.exe!KiDeliverApc+0x2e9
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapThread+0x827
ntoskrnl.exe!KiCommitThreadWait+0x14f
ntoskrnl.exe!KeRemoveQueueEx+0x263
ntoskrnl.exe!IoRemoveIoCompletion+0x98
ntoskrnl.exe!NtWaitForWorkViaWorkerFactory+0x38e
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSystemServiceCopyEnd+0x25
ntdll.dll!ZwWaitForWorkViaWorkerFactory+0x14
ntdll.dll!TppWorkerThread+0x2f7
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

The system call NtWaitForWorkViaWorkerFactory is the one waiting for work (the name Worker Factory is the internal name of the thread pool type in the kernel, officially called TpWorkerFactory). The number of such threads is typically dynamic, growing and shrinking based on the amount of work provided to the thread pool(s). The minimum and maximum threads can be tweaked by APIs, but most processes are unlikely to do so.

Another function that appears a lot in the list is shcore.dll!_WrapperThreadProc. It looks like some generic function used by Explorer for its own threads. We can examine some call stacks to get a sense of what’s going on. Here is one:

ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapContext+0x76
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapThread+0x500
ntoskrnl.exe!KiCommitThreadWait+0x14f
ntoskrnl.exe!KeWaitForSingleObject+0x233
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSchedulerApc+0x3bd
ntoskrnl.exe!KiDeliverApc+0x2e9
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSwapThread+0x827
ntoskrnl.exe!KiCommitThreadWait+0x14f
ntoskrnl.exe!KeWaitForSingleObject+0x233
ntoskrnl.exe!KeWaitForMultipleObjects+0x45b
win32kfull.sys!xxxRealSleepThread+0x362
win32kfull.sys!xxxSleepThread2+0xb5
win32kfull.sys!xxxRealInternalGetMessage+0xcfd
win32kfull.sys!NtUserGetMessage+0x92
win32k.sys!NtUserGetMessage+0x16
ntoskrnl.exe!KiSystemServiceCopyEnd+0x25
win32u.dll!NtUserGetMessage+0x14
USER32.dll!GetMessageW+0x2e
SHELL32.dll!_LocalServerThread+0x66
shcore.dll!_WrapperThreadProc+0xe9
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

This one seems to be waiting for UI messages, probably managing some user interface (GetMessage). We can verify with other tools. Here is my own WinSpy:

Apparently, I was wrong. This thread has the hidden window type used to receive messages targeting COM objects that leave in this Single Threaded Apartment (STA).

We can inspect WinSpy some more to see the threads and windows created by Explorer. I’ll leave that to the interested reader.

Other generic call stacks start with ucrtbase.dll!thread_start+0x42. Many of them have the following call stack (kernel part trimmed for brevity):

ntdll.dll!ZwWaitForMultipleObjects+0x14
KERNELBASE.dll!WaitForMultipleObjectsEx+0xf0
KERNELBASE.dll!WaitForMultipleObjects+0xe
cdp.dll!shared::CallbackNotifierListener::ListenerInternal::StartInternal+0x9f
cdp.dll!std::thread::_Invoke<std::tuple<<lambda_10793e1829a048bb2f8cc95974633b56> >,0>+0x2f
ucrtbase.dll!thread_start<unsigned int (__cdecl*)(void *),1>+0x42
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

A function in CDP.dll is waiting for something (WaitForMultipleObjects). I count at least 12 threads doing just that. Perhaps all these waits could be consolidated to a smaller number of threads?

Let’s tackle a different process. Here is an instance of Teams.exe. My teams is minimized to the tray and I have not interacted with it for a while:

Teams threads

62 threads. Many have the same CRT wrapper for a thread created by Teams. Here are several call stacks I observed:

ntdll.dll!ZwRemoveIoCompletion+0x14
KERNELBASE.dll!GetQueuedCompletionStatus+0x4f
skypert.dll!rtnet::internal::SingleThreadIOCP::iocpLoop+0x116
skypert.dll!SplOpaqueUpperLayerThread::run+0x84
skypert.dll!auf::priv::MRMWTransport::process1+0x6c
skypert.dll!auf::ThreadPoolExecutorImp::workLoop+0x160
skypert.dll!auf::tpImpThreadTrampoline+0x47
skypert.dll!spl::threadWinDispatch+0x19
skypert.dll!spl::threadWinEntry+0x17b
ucrtbase.dll!thread_start<unsigned int (__cdecl*)(void *),1>+0x42
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21
ntdll.dll!ZwWaitForAlertByThreadId+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlSleepConditionVariableCS+0x105
KERNELBASE.dll!SleepConditionVariableCS+0x29
Teams.exe!uv_cond_wait+0x10
Teams.exe!worker+0x8d
Teams.exe!uv__thread_start+0xa2
Teams.exe!thread_start<unsigned int (__cdecl*)(void *),1>+0x50
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

You can check more threads, but you get the idea. Most threads are waiting for something – this is not the ideal activity for a thread. A thread should run (useful) code.

Last example, Word:

57 threads. Word has been minimized for more than an hour now. The clearly common call stack looks like this:

ntdll.dll!ZwWaitForAlertByThreadId+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlSleepConditionVariableSRW+0x131
KERNELBASE.dll!SleepConditionVariableSRW+0x29
v8jsi.dll!CrashForExceptionInNonABICompliantCodeRange+0x4092f6
v8jsi.dll!CrashForExceptionInNonABICompliantCodeRange+0x11ff2
v8jsi.dll!v8_inspector::V8StackTrace::topScriptIdAsInteger+0x43ad0
ucrtbase.dll!thread_start<unsigned int (__cdecl*)(void *),1>+0x42
KERNEL32.DLL!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
ntdll.dll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

v8jsi.dll is the React Native v8 engine – it’s creating many threads, most of which are doing nothing. I found it in Outlook and PowerPoint as well.

Many applications today depend on various libraries and frameworks, some of which don’t seem to care too much about using threads economically – examples include Node.js, the Electron framework, even Java and .NET. Threads are not free – there is the ETHREAD and related data structures in the kernel, stack in kernel space, and stack in user space. Context switches and code run by the kernel scheduler when threads change states from Running to Waiting, and from Waiting to Ready are not free, either.

Many desktop/laptop systems today are very powerful and it might seem everything is fine. I don’t think so. Developers use so many layers of abstraction these days, that we sometimes forget there are actual processors that execute the code, and need to use memory and other resources. None of that is free.

image-1

zodiacon

Mysteries of the Registry

15 April 2022 at 15:17

The Windows Registry is one of the most recognized aspects of Windows. It’s a hierarchical database, storing information on a machine-wide basis and on a per-user basis… mostly. In this post, I’d like to examine the major parts of the Registry, including the “real” Registry.

Looking at the Registry is typically done by launching the built-in RegEdit.exe tool, which shows the five “hives” that seem to comprise the Registry:

RegEdit showing the main hives

These so-called “hives” provide some abstracted view of the information in the Registry. I’m saying “abstracted”, because not all of these are true hives. A true hive is stored in a file. The full hive list can be found in the Registry itself – at HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\hivelist (I’ll abbreviate HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE as HKLM), mapping an internal key name to the file where it’s stored (more on these “internal” key names will be discussed soon):

The hive list

Let’s examine the so-called “hives” as seen in the root RegEdit’s view.

  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is the simplest to understand. It contains machine-wide information, most of it stored in files (persistent). Some details related to hardware is built when the system initializes and is only kept in memory while the system is running. Such keys are volatile, since their contents disappear when the system is shut down.
    There are many interesting keys within HKLM, but my goal is not to go over every key (that would take a full book), but highlight a few useful pieces. HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services is the key where all services and device drivers are installed. Note that “CurrentControlSet” is not a true key, but in fact is a link key, connecting it to something like HKLM\System\ControlSet001. The reason for this indirection is beyond the scope of this post. Regedit does not show this fact directly – there is no way to tell whether a key is a true key or just points to a different key. This is one reason I created Total Registry (formerly called Registry Explorer), that shows these kind of nuances:
TotalRegistry showing HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet

The liked key seems to have a weird name starting with \REGISTRY\MACHINE\. We’ll get to that shortly.

Other subkeys of note under HKLM include SOFTWARE, where installed applications store their system-level information; SAM and SECURITY, where local security policy and local accounts information are managed. These two subkeys contents is not not visible – even administrators don’t get access – only the SYSTEM account is granted access. One way to see what’s in these keys is to use psexec from Sysinternals to launch RegEdit or TotalRegistry under the SYSTEM account. Here is a command you can run in an elevated command window that will launch RegEdit under the SYSTEM account (if you’re using RegEdit, close it first):

psexec -s -i -d RegEdit

The -s switch indicates the SYSTEM account. -i is critical as to run the process in the interactive session (the default would run it in session 0, where no interactive user will ever see it). The -d switch is optional, and simply returns control to the console while the process is running, rather than waiting for the process to terminate.

The other way to gain access to the SAM and SECURITY subkeys is to use the “Take Ownership” privilege (easy to do when the Permissions dialog is open), and transfer the ownership to an admin user – the owner can specify who can do what with an object, and allow itself full access. Obviously, this is not a good idea in general, as it weakens security.

The BCD00000000 subkey contains the Boot Configuration Data (BCD), normally accessed using the bcdedit.exe tool.

  • HKEY_USERS – this is the other hive that truly stores data. Its subkeys contain user profiles for all users that ever logged in locally to this machine. Each subkey’s name is a Security ID (SID), in its string representation:
HKEY_USERS

There are 3 well-known SIDs, representing the SYSTEM (S-1-5-18), LocalService (S-1-5-19), and NetworkService (S-1-5-20) accounts. These are the typical accounts used for running Windows Services. “Normal” users get ugly SIDs, such as the one shown – that’s my user’s local SID. You may be wondering what is that “_Classes” suffix in the second key. We’ll get to that as well.

  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER is a link key, pointing to the user’s subkey under HKEY_USERS running the current process. Obviously, the meaning of “current user” changes based on the process access token looking at the Registry.
  • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT is the most curious of the keys. It’s not a “real” key in the sense that it’s not a hive – not stored in a file. It’s not a link key, either. This key is a “combination” of two keys: HKLM\Software\Classes and HKCU\Software\Classes. In other words, the information in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT is coming from the machine hive first, but can be overridden by the current user’s hive.
    What information is there anyway? The first thing is shell-related information, such as file extensions and associations, and all other information normally used by Explorer.exe. The second thing is information related to the Component Object Model (COM). For example, the CLSID subkey holds COM class registration (GUIDs you can pass to CoCreateInstance to (potentially) create a COM object of that class). Looking at the CLSID subkey under HKLM\Software\Classes shows there are 8160 subkeys, or roughly 8160 COM classes registered on my system from HKLM:
HKLM\Software\Classes

Looking at the same key under HKEY_CURRENT_USER tells a different story:

HKCU\Software\Classes

Only 46 COM classes provide extra or overridden registrations. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT combines both, and uses HKCU in case of a conflict (same key name). This explains the extra “_Classes” subkey within the HKEY_USERS key – it stores the per user stuff (in the file UsrClasses.dat in something like c:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows).

  • HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG is a link to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Hardware\Profiles\Current

    The list of “standard” hives (the hives accessible by official Windows APIs such as RegOpenKeyEx contains some more that are not shown by Regedit. They can be viewed by TotalReg if the option “Extra Hives” is selected in the View menu. At this time, however, the tool needs to be restarted for this change to take effect (I just didn’t get around to implementing the change dynamically, as it was low on my priority list). Here are all the hives accessible with the official Windows API:
All hives

I’ll let the interested reader to dig further into these “extra” hives. On of these hives deserves special mentioning – HKEY_PERFORMANCE_DATA – it was used in the pre Windows 2000 days as a way to access Performance Counters. Registry APIs had to be used at the time. Fortunately, starting from Windows 2000, a new dedicated API is provided to access Performance Counters (functions starting with Pdh* in <pdh.h>).

Is this it? Is this the entire Registry? Not quite. As you can see in TotalReg, there is a node called “Registry”, that tells yet another story. Internally, all Registry keys are rooted in a single key called REGISTRY. This is the only named Registry key. You can see it in the root of the Object Manager’s namespace with WinObj from Sysinternals:

WinObj from Sysinternals showing the Registry key object

Here is the object details in a Local Kernel debugger:

lkd> !object \registry
Object: ffffe00c8564c860  Type: (ffff898a519922a0) Key
    ObjectHeader: ffffe00c8564c830 (new version)
    HandleCount: 1  PointerCount: 32770
    Directory Object: 00000000  Name: \REGISTRY
lkd> !trueref ffffe00c8564c860
ffffe00c8564c860: HandleCount: 1 PointerCount: 32770 RealPointerCount: 3

All other Registry keys are based off of that root key, the Configuration Manager (the kernel component in charge of the Registry) parses the remaining path as expected. This is the real Registry. The official Windows APIs cannot use this path format, but native APIs can. For example, using NtOpenKey (documented as ZwOpenKey in the Windows Driver Kit, as this is a system call) allows such access. This is how TotalReg is able to look at the real Registry.

Clearly, the normal user-mode APIs somehow map the “standard” hive path to the real Registry path. The simplest is the mapping of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE to \REGISTRY\MACHINE. Another simple one is HKEY_USERS mapped to \REGISTRY\USER. HKEY_CURRENT_USER is a bit more complex, and needs to be mapped to the per-user hive under \REGISTRY\USER. The most complex is our friend HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT – there is no simple mapping – the APIs have to check if there is per-user override or not, etc.

Lastly, it seems there are keys in the real Registry that cannot be reached from the standard Registry at all:

The real Registry

There is a key named “A” which seems inaccessible. This key is used for private keys in processes, very common in Universal Windows Application (UWP) processes, but can be used in other processes as well. They are not accessible generally, not even with kernel code – the Configuration Manager prevents it. You can verify their existence by searching for \Registry\A in tools like Process Explorer or TotalReg itself (by choosing Scan Key Handles from the Tools menu). Here is TotalReg, followed by Process Explorer:

TotalReg key handles
Process Explorer key handles

Finally, the WC key is used for Windows Container, internally called Silos. A container (like the ones created by Docker) is an isolated instance of a user-mode OS, kind of like a lightweight virtual machine, but the kernel is not separate (as would be with a true VM), but is provided by the host. Silos are very interesting, but outside the scope of this post.

Briefly, there are two main Silo types: An Application Silo, which is not a true container, and mostly used with application based on the Desktop Bridge technology. A classic example is WinDbg Preview. The second type is Server Silo, which is a true container. A true container must have its file system, Registry, and Object Manager namespace virtualized. This is exactly the role of the WC subkeys – provide the private Registry keys for containers. The Configuration Manager (as well as other parts of the kernel) are Silo-aware, and will redirect Registry calls to the correct subkey, having no effect on the Host Registry or the private Registry of other Silos.

You can examine some aspects of silos with the kernel debugger !silo command. Here is an example from a server 2022 running a Server Silo and the Registry keys under WC:

lkd> !silo
		Address          Type       ProcessCount Identifier
		ffff800f2986c2e0 ServerSilo 15           {1d29488c-bccd-11ec-a503-d127529101e4} (0n732)
1 active Silo(s)
lkd> !silo ffff800f2986c2e0

Silo ffff800f2986c2e0:
		Job               : ffff800f2986c2e0
		Type              : ServerSilo
		Identifier        : {1d29488c-bccd-11ec-a503-d127529101e4} (0n732)
		Processes         : 15

Server silo globals ffff800f27e65a40:
		Default Error Port: ffff800f234ee080
		ServiceSessionId  : 217
		Root Directory    : 00007ffcad26b3e1 '\Silos\732'
		State             : Running
A Server Silo’s keys

There you have it. The relatively simple-looking Registry shown in RegEdit is viewed differently by the kernel. Device driver writers find this out relatively early – they cannot use the “abstractions” provided by user mode even if these are sometimes convenient.


image-1

zodiacon

Zombie Processes

14 May 2022 at 09:00

The term “Zombie Process” in Windows is not an official one, as far as I know. Regardless, I’ll define zombie process to be a process that has exited (for whatever reason), but at least one reference remains to the kernel process object (EPROCESS), so that the process object cannot be destroyed.

How can we recognize zombie processes? Is this even important? Let’s find out.

All kernel objects are reference counted. The reference count includes the handle count (the number of open handles to the object), and a “pointer count”, the number of kernel clients to the object that have incremented its reference count explicitly so the object is not destroyed prematurely if all handles to it are closed.

Process objects are managed within the kernel by the EPROCESS (undocumented) structure, that contains or points to everything about the process – its handle table, image name, access token, job (if any), threads, address space, etc. When a process is done executing, some aspects of the process get destroyed immediately. For example, all handles in its handle table are closed; its address space is destroyed. General properties of the process remain, however, some of which only have true meaning once a process dies, such as its exit code.

Process enumeration tools such as Task Manager or Process Explorer don’t show zombie processes, simply because the process enumeration APIs (EnumProcesses, Process32First/Process32Next, the native NtQuerySystemInformation, and WTSEnumerateProcesses) don’t return these – they only return processes that can still run code. The kernel debugger, on the other hand, shows all processes, zombie or not when you type something like !process 0 0. Identifying zombie processes is easy – their handle table and handle count is shown as zero. Here is one example:

kd> !process ffffc986a505a080 0
PROCESS ffffc986a505a080
    SessionId: 1  Cid: 1010    Peb: 37648ff000  ParentCid: 0588
    DirBase: 16484cd000  ObjectTable: 00000000  HandleCount:   0.
    Image: smartscreen.exe

Any kernel object referenced by the process object remains alive as well – such as a job (if the process is part of a job), and the process primary token (access token object). We can get more details about the process by passing the detail level “1” in the !process command:

lkd> !process ffffc986a505a080 1
PROCESS ffffc986a505a080
    SessionId: 1  Cid: 1010    Peb: 37648ff000  ParentCid: 0588
    DirBase: 16495cd000  ObjectTable: 00000000  HandleCount:   0.
    Image: smartscreen.exe
    VadRoot 0000000000000000 Vads 0 Clone 0 Private 16. Modified 7. Locked 0.
    DeviceMap ffffa2013f24aea0
    Token                             ffffa20147ded060
    ElapsedTime                       1 Day 15:11:50.174
    UserTime                          00:00:00.000
    KernelTime                        00:00:00.015
    QuotaPoolUsage[PagedPool]         0
    QuotaPoolUsage[NonPagedPool]      0
    Working Set Sizes (now,min,max)  (17, 50, 345) (68KB, 200KB, 1380KB)
    PeakWorkingSetSize                2325
    VirtualSize                       0 Mb
    PeakVirtualSize                   2101341 Mb
    PageFaultCount                    2500
    MemoryPriority                    BACKGROUND
    BasePriority                      8
    CommitCharge                      20
    Job                               ffffc98672eea060

Notice the address space does not exist anymore (VadRoot is zero). The VAD (Virtual Address Descriptors) is a data structure managed as a balanced binary search tree that describes the address space of a process – which parts are committed, which parts are reserved, etc. No address space exists anymore. Other details of the process are still there as they are direct members of the EPROCESS structure, such as the kernel and user time the process has used, its start and exit times (not shown in the debugger’s output above).

We can ask the debugger to show the reference count of any kernel object by using the generic !object command, to be followed by !trueref if there are handles open to the object:

lkd> !object ffffc986a505a080
Object: ffffc986a505a080  Type: (ffffc986478ce380) Process
    ObjectHeader: ffffc986a505a050 (new version)
    HandleCount: 1  PointerCount: 32768
lkd> !trueref ffffc986a505a080
ffffc986a505a080: HandleCount: 1 PointerCount: 32768 RealPointerCount: 1

Clearly, there is a single handle open to the process and that’s the only thing keeping it alive.

One other thing that remains is the unique process ID (shown as Cid in the above output). Process and thread IDs are generated by using a private handle table just for this purpose. This explains why process and thread IDs are always multiples of four, just like handles. In fact, the kernel treats PIDs and TIDs with the HANDLE type, rather with something like ULONG. Since there is a limit to the number of handles in a process (16711680, the reason is not described here), that’s also the limit for the number of process and threads that could exist on a system. This is a rather large number, so probably not an issue from a practical perspective, but zombie processes still keep their PIDs “taken”, so it cannot be reused. This means that in theory, some code can create millions of processes, terminate them all, but not close the handles it receives back, and eventually new processes could not be created anymore because PIDs (and TIDs) run out. I don’t know what would happen then 🙂

Here is a simple loop to do something like that by creating and destroying Notepad processes but keeping handles open:

WCHAR name[] = L"notepad";
STARTUPINFO si{ sizeof(si) };
PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
int i = 0;
for (; i < 1000000; i++) {	// use 1 million as an example
	auto created = ::CreateProcess(nullptr, name, nullptr, nullptr,
        FALSE, 0, nullptr, nullptr, &si, &pi);
	if (!created)
		break;
	::TerminateProcess(pi.hProcess, 100);
	printf("Index: %6d PID: %u\n", i + 1, pi.dwProcessId);
	::CloseHandle(pi.hThread);
}
printf("Total: %d\n", i);

The code closes the handle to the first thread in the process, as keeping it alive would create “Zombie Threads”, much like zombie processes – threads that can no longer run any code, but still exist because at least one handle is keeping them alive.

How can we get a list of zombie processes on a system given that the “normal” tools for process enumeration don’t show them? One way of doing this is to enumerate all the process handles in the system, and check if the process pointed by that handle is truly alive by calling WaitForSingleObject on the handle (of course the handle must first be duplicated into our process so it’s valid to use) with a timeout of zero – we don’t want to wait really. If the result is WAIT_OBJECT_0, this means the process object is signaled, meaning it exited – it’s no longer capable of running any code. I have incorporated that into my Object Explorer (ObjExp.exe) tool. Here is the basic code to get details for zombie processes (the code for enumerating handles is not shown but is available in the source code):

m_Items.clear();
m_Items.reserve(128);
std::unordered_map<DWORD, size_t> processes;
for (auto const& h : ObjectManager::EnumHandles2(L"Process")) {
	auto hDup = ObjectManager::DupHandle(
        (HANDLE)(ULONG_PTR)h->HandleValue , h->ProcessId, 
        SYNCHRONIZE | PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION);
	if (hDup && WAIT_OBJECT_0 == ::WaitForSingleObject(hDup, 0)) {
		//
		// zombie process
		//
		auto pid = ::GetProcessId(hDup);
		if (pid) {
			auto it = processes.find(pid);
			ZombieProcess zp;
			auto& z = it == processes.end() ? zp : m_Items[it->second];
			z.Pid = pid;
			z.Handles.push_back({ h->HandleValue, h->ProcessId });
			WCHAR name[MAX_PATH];
			if (::GetProcessImageFileName(hDup, 
                name, _countof(name))) {
				z.FullPath = 
                    ProcessHelper::GetDosNameFromNtName(name);
				z.Name = wcsrchr(name, L'\\') + 1;
			}
			::GetProcessTimes(hDup, 
                (PFILETIME)&z.CreateTime, (PFILETIME)&z.ExitTime, 
                (PFILETIME)&z.KernelTime, (PFILETIME)&z.UserTime);
			::GetExitCodeProcess(hDup, &z.ExitCode);
			if (it == processes.end()) {
				m_Items.push_back(std::move(z));
				processes.insert({ pid, m_Items.size() - 1 });
			}
		}
	}
	if (hDup)
		::CloseHandle(hDup);
}

The data structure built for each process and stored in the m_Items vector is the following:

struct HandleEntry {
	ULONG Handle;
	DWORD Pid;
};
struct ZombieProcess {
	DWORD Pid;
	DWORD ExitCode{ 0 };
	std::wstring Name, FullPath;
	std::vector<HandleEntry> Handles;
	DWORD64 CreateTime, ExitTime, KernelTime, UserTime;
};

The ObjectManager::DupHandle function is not shown, but it basically calls DuplicateHandle for the process handle identified in some process. if that works, and the returned PID is non-zero, we can go do the work. Getting the process image name is done with GetProcessImageFileName – seems simple enough, but this function gets the NT name format of the executable (something like \Device\harddiskVolume3\Windows\System32\Notepad.exe), which is good enough if only the “short” final image name component is desired. if the full image path is needed in Win32 format (e.g. “c:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe”), it must be converted (ProcessHelper::GetDosNameFromNtName). You might be thinking that it would be far simpler to call QueryFullProcessImageName and get the Win32 name directly – but this does not work, and the function fails. Internally, the NtQueryInformationProcess native API is called with ProcessImageFileNameWin32 in the latter case, which fails if the process is a zombie one.

Running Object Explorer and selecting Zombie Processes from the System menu shows a list of all zombie processes (you should run it elevated for best results):

Object Explorer showing zombie processes

The above screenshot shows that many of the zombie processes are kept alive by GameManagerService.exe. This executable is from Razer running on my system. It definitely has a bug that keeps process handle alive way longer than needed. I’m not sure it would ever close these handles. Terminating this process will resolve the issue as the kernel closes all handles in a process handle table once the process terminates. This will allow all those processes that are held by that single handle to be freed from memory.

I plan to add Zombie Threads to Object Explorer – I wonder how many threads are being kept “alive” without good reason.

image

zodiacon

Next Windows Kernel Programming Class

14 July 2022 at 12:13

I’m happy to announce the next 5-day virtual Windows Kernel Programming class to be held in October. The syllabus for the class can be found here. A notable addition to the class is an introduction to the Kernel Mode Driver Framework (KMDF).

Dates and Times (all in October 2022), times based on London:
11 (full day): 4pm to 12am
12 (full day): 4pm to 12am
13 (half day): 4pm to 8pm
17 (half day): 4pm to 8pm
18 (full day): 4pm to 12am
19 (half day): 4pm to 8pm
20 (half day): 4pm to 8pm

The class will be recorded and provided to the participants.

Cost:
900 USD if paid by an individual
1700 USD if paid by a company
Previous participants of my classes get 10% off. Multiple participants from the same company get a discount as well (talk to me).

Registration
To register, send email to [email protected] and provide the name(s) and email(s) of the participant(s), the company name (if any), and your time zone (for my information, although I cannot change course times).

Feel free to contact me for any questions or comments via email, twitter (@zodiacon) or Linkedin.

driver-anatomy

zodiacon

Introduction to Monikers

17 September 2022 at 22:02

The foundations of the Component Object Model (COM) are made of two principles:

  1. Clients program against interfaces, never concrete classes.
  2. Location transparency – clients need not know where the actual object is (in-process, out-of-process, another machine).

Although simple in principle, there are many details involved in COM, as those with COM experience are well aware. In this post, I’d like to introduce one extensibility aspect of COM called Monikers.

The idea of a moniker is to provide some way to identify and locate specific objects based on string names instead of some custom mechanism. Windows provides some implementations of monikers, most of which are related to Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), most notably used in Microsoft Office applications. For example, when an Excel chart is embedded in a Word document as a link, an Item moniker is used to point to that specific chart using a string with a specific format understood by the moniker mechanism and the specific monikers involved. This also suggests that monikers can be combined, which is indeed the case. For example, a cell in some Excel document can be located by going to a specific sheet, then a specific range, then a specific cell – each one could be pointed to by a moniker, that when chained together can locate the required object.

Let’s start with perhaps the simplest example of an existing moniker implementation – the Class moniker. This moniker can be used to replace a creation operation. Here is an example that creates a COM object using the “standard” mechanism of calling CoCreateInstance:

#include <shlobjidl.h>
//...
CComPtr<IShellWindows> spShell;
auto hr = spShell.CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(ShellWindows));

I use the ATL smart pointers (#include <atlcomcli.h> or <atlbase.h>). The interface and class I’m using is just an example – any standard COM class would work. The CoCreateInstance method calls the real CoCreateInstance. To make it clearer, here is the CoCreateInstance call without using the helper provided by the smart pointer:

CComPtr<IShellWindows> spShell;
auto hr = ::CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(ShellWindows), nullptr, 
    CLSCTX_ALL, __uuidof(IShellWindows), 
    reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spShell));

CoCreateInstance itself is a glorified wrapper for calling CoGetClassObject to retrieve a class factory, requesting the standard IClassFactory interface, and then calling CreateInstance on it:

CComPtr<IClassFactory> spCF;
auto hr = ::CoGetClassObject(__uuidof(ShellWindows), 
    CLSCTX_ALL, nullptr, __uuidof(IClassFactory), 
    reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spCF));
if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
    CComPtr<IShellWindows> spShell;
    hr = spCF->CreateInstance(nullptr, __uuidof(IShellWindows),
        reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spShell));
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
        // use spShell
    }
}

Here is where the Class moniker comes in: It’s possible to get a class factory directly using a string like so:

CComPtr<IClassFactory> spCF;
BIND_OPTS opts{ sizeof(opts) };
auto hr = ::CoGetObject(
    L"clsid:9BA05972-F6A8-11CF-A442-00A0C90A8F39", 
    &opts, __uuidof(IClassFactory), 
    reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spCF));

Using CoGetObject is the most convenient way in C++ to locate an object based on a moniker. The moniker name is the string provided to CoGetObject. It starts with a ProgID of sorts followed by a colon. The rest of the string is to be interpreted by the moniker behind the scenes. With the class factory in hand, the code can use IClassFactory::CreateInstance just as with the previous example.

How does it work? As is usual with COM, the Registry is involved. If you open RegEdit or TotalRegistry and navigate to HKYE_CLASSES_ROOT, ProgIDs are all there. One of them is “clsid” – yes, it’s a bit weird perhaps, but the entry point to the moniker system is that ProgID. Each ProgID should have a CLSID subkey pointing to the class ID of the moniker. So here, the key is HKCR\CLSID\CLSID!

Class Moniker Registration

Of course, other monikers have different names (not CLSID). If we follow the CLSID on the right to the normal location for COM CLSID registration (HKCR\CLSID), this is what we find:

Class moniker

And the InProcServer32 subkey points to Combase.dll, the DLL implementing the COM infrastructure:

Class Moniker Implementation

At this point, we know how the class moniker got discovered, but it’s still not clear what is that moniker and where is it anyway?

As mentioned earlier, CoGetObject is the simplest way to get an object from a moniker, as it hides the details of the moniker itself. CoGetObject is a shortcut for calling MkParseDisplayName – the real entry point to the COM moniker namespace. Here is the full way to get a class moniker by going through the moniker:

CComPtr<IMoniker> spClsMoniker;
CComPtr<IBindCtx> spBindCtx;
::CreateBindCtx(0, &spBindCtx);
ULONG eaten;
CComPtr<IClassFactory> spCF;
auto hr = ::MkParseDisplayName(
    spBindCtx,
    L"clsid:9BA05972-F6A8-11CF-A442-00A0C90A8F39",
    &eaten, &spClsMoniker);
if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
    spClsMoniker->BindToObject(spBindCtx, nullptr,
        __uuidof(IClassFactory), reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spCF));

MkParseDisplayName takes a “display name” – a string, and attempts to locate the moniker based on the information in the Registry (it actually has some special code for certain OLE stuff which is not interesting in this context). The Bind Context is a helper object that can (in the general case) contain an arbitrary set of properties that can be used by the moniker to customize the way it interprets the display name. The class moniker does not use any property, but it’s still necessary to provide the object even if it has no interesting data in it. If successful, MkParseDisplayName returns the moniker interface pointer, implementing the IMoniker interface that all monikers must implement. IMoniker is somewhat a scary interface, having 20 methods (excluding IUnknown). Fortunately, not all have to be implemented. We’ll get to implementing our own moniker soon.

The primary method in IMoniker is BindToObject, which is tasked of interpreting the display name, if possible, and returning the real object that the client is trying to locate. The client provides the interface it expects the target object to implement – IClassFactory in the case of a class moniker.

You might be wondering what’s the point of the class moniker if you could simply create the required object directly with the normal class factory. One advantage of the moniker is that a string is involved, which allows “late binding” of sorts, and allows other languages, such as scripting languages, to create COM objects indirectly. For example, VBScript provides the GetObject function that calls CoGetObject.

Implementing a Moniker

Some details are still missing, such as how does the moniker object itself gets created? To show that, let’s implement our own moniker. We’ll call it the Process Moniker – its purpose is to locate a COM process object we’ll implement that allows working with a Windows Process object.

Here is an example of something a client would do to find a process object based on its PID, and then display its executable path:

BIND_OPTS opts{ sizeof(opts) };
CComPtr<IWinProcess> spProcess;
auto hr = ::CoGetObject(L"process:3284", 
    &opts, __uuidof(IWinProcess), 
    reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spProcess));
if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
    CComBSTR path;
    if (S_OK == spProcess->get_ImagePath(&path)) {
        printf("Image path: %ws\n", path.m_str);
    }
}

The IWinProcess is the interface our process object implements, but there is no need to know its CLSID (in fact, it has none, and is created privately by the moniker). The display name “prcess:3284” identifies the string “process” as the moniker name, meaning there must be a subkey under HKCR named “process” for this to have any chance of working. And under the “process” key there must be the CLSID of the moniker. Here is the final result:

process moniker

The CLSID of the process moniker must be registered normally like all COM classes. The text after the colon is passed to the moniker which should interpret it in a way that makes sense for that moniker (or fail trying). In our case, it’s supposed to be a PID of an existing process.

Let’s see the main steps needed to implement the process moniker. From a technical perspective, I created an ATL DLL project in Visual Studio (could be an EXE as well), and then added an “ATL Simple Object” class template to get the boilerplate code the ATL template provides. We just need to implement IMoniker – no need for some custom interface. Here is the layout of the class:

class ATL_NO_VTABLE CProcessMoniker :
	public CComObjectRootEx<CComMultiThreadModel>,
	public CComCoClass<CProcessMoniker, &CLSID_ProcessMoniker>,
	public IMoniker {
public:
	DECLARE_REGISTRY_RESOURCEID(106)
	DECLARE_CLASSFACTORY_EX(CMonikerClassFactory)

	BEGIN_COM_MAP(CProcessMoniker)
		COM_INTERFACE_ENTRY(IMoniker)
	END_COM_MAP()

	DECLARE_PROTECT_FINAL_CONSTRUCT()
	HRESULT FinalConstruct() {
		return S_OK;
	}
	void FinalRelease() {
	}

public:
	// Inherited via IMoniker
	HRESULT __stdcall GetClassID(CLSID* pClassID) override;
	HRESULT __stdcall IsDirty(void) override;
	HRESULT __stdcall Load(IStream* pStm) override;
	HRESULT __stdcall Save(IStream* pStm, BOOL fClearDirty) override;
	HRESULT __stdcall GetSizeMax(ULARGE_INTEGER* pcbSize) override;
	HRESULT __stdcall BindToObject(IBindCtx* pbc, IMoniker* pmkToLeft, REFIID riidResult, void** ppvResult) override;
    // other IMoniker methods...
	std::wstring m_DisplayName;
};

OBJECT_ENTRY_AUTO(__uuidof(ProcessMoniker), CProcessMoniker)

Those familiar with the typical code the ATL wizard generates might notice one important difference from the standard template: the class factory. It turns out that monikers are not created by an IClassFactory when called by a client invoking MkParseDisplayName (or its CoGetObject wrapper), but instead must implement the interface IParseDisplayName, which we’ll tackle in a moment. This is why DECLARE_CLASSFACTORY_EX(CMonikerClassFactory) is used to instruct ATL to use a custom class factory which we must implement.

MkParseDisplayName operation

Before we get to that, let’s implement the “main” method – BindToObject. We have to assume that the m_DisplayName member already has the process ID – it will be provided by our class factory that creates our moniker. First, we’ll convert the display name to a number:

HRESULT __stdcall CProcessMoniker::BindToObject(IBindCtx* pbc, IMoniker* pmkToLeft, REFIID riidResult, void** ppvResult) {
	auto pid = std::stoul(m_DisplayName);

Next, we’ll attempt to open a handle to the process:

auto hProcess = ::OpenProcess(PROCESS_QUERY_LIMITED_INFORMATION, 
    FALSE, pid);
if (!hProcess)
    return HRESULT_FROM_WIN32(::GetLastError());

If we fail, we just return a failed HRESULT and we’re done. If successful, we can create the WinProcess object, pass the handle and return the interface requested by the client (if supported):

	CComObject<CWinProcess>* pProcess;
	auto hr = pProcess->CreateInstance(&pProcess);
	pProcess->SetHandle(hProcess);
	pProcess->AddRef();
	
	hr = pProcess->QueryInterface(riidResult, ppvResult);
	pProcess->Release();
	return hr;
}

The creation of the object is internal via CComObject<>. The WinProcess COM class is not registered, which is just a matter of choice. I decided, a WinProcess object can only be obtained through the Process Moniker.

The calls to AddRef/Release may be puzzling, but there is a good reason for using them. When creating a CComObject<> object, the reference count of the object is zero. Then, the call to AddRef increments it to 1. Next, if the QueryInterface call succeeds, the ref count is incremented to 2. Then, the Release call decrements it to 1, as that is the correct count when the object is returned to the client. If, however, the call to QI fails, the ref count remains at 1, and the Release call will destroy the object! More elegant than calling delete.

SetHandle is a function in CWinProcess (outside the IWinProcess interface) that passes the handle to the object.

The WinProcess COM class is the uninteresting part in all of these, so I created a bare minimum class like so:

class ATL_NO_VTABLE CWinProcess :
	public CComObjectRootEx<CComMultiThreadModel>,
	public IDispatchImpl<IWinProcess> {
public:
	DECLARE_NO_REGISTRY()

	BEGIN_COM_MAP(CWinProcess)
		COM_INTERFACE_ENTRY(IWinProcess)
		COM_INTERFACE_ENTRY(IDispatch)
		COM_INTERFACE_ENTRY_AGGREGATE(IID_IMarshal, m_pUnkMarshaler.p)
	END_COM_MAP()

	DECLARE_PROTECT_FINAL_CONSTRUCT()
	DECLARE_GET_CONTROLLING_UNKNOWN()

	HRESULT FinalConstruct() {
		return CoCreateFreeThreadedMarshaler(
			GetControllingUnknown(), &m_pUnkMarshaler.p);
	}

	void FinalRelease() {
		m_pUnkMarshaler.Release();
		if (m_hProcess)
			::CloseHandle(m_hProcess);
	}

	void SetHandle(HANDLE hProcess);

private:
	HANDLE m_hProcess{ nullptr };
	CComPtr<IUnknown> m_pUnkMarshaler;

	// Inherited via IWinProcess
	HRESULT get_Id(DWORD* pId);
	HRESULT get_ImagePath(BSTR* path);
	HRESULT Terminate(DWORD exitCode);
};

The two properties and one method look like this:

void CWinProcess::SetHandle(HANDLE hProcess) {
	m_hProcess = hProcess;
}

HRESULT CWinProcess::get_Id(DWORD* pId) {
	ATLASSERT(m_hProcess);
	return *pId = ::GetProcessId(m_hProcess), S_OK;
}

HRESULT CWinProcess::get_ImagePath(BSTR* pPath) {
	WCHAR path[MAX_PATH];
	DWORD size = _countof(path);
	if (::QueryFullProcessImageName(m_hProcess, 0, path, &size))
		return CComBSTR(path).CopyTo(pPath);

	return HRESULT_FROM_WIN32(::GetLastError());
}

HRESULT CWinProcess::Terminate(DWORD exitCode) {
	HANDLE hKill;
	if (::DuplicateHandle(::GetCurrentProcess(), m_hProcess, 
		::GetCurrentProcess(), &hKill, PROCESS_TERMINATE, FALSE, 0)) {
		auto success = ::TerminateProcess(hKill, exitCode);
		auto error = ::GetLastError();
		::CloseHandle(hKill);
		return success ? S_OK : HRESULT_FROM_WIN32(error);
	}
	return HRESULT_FROM_WIN32(::GetLastError());
}

The APIs used above are fairly straightforward and of course fully documented.

The last piece of the puzzle is the moniker’s class factory:

class ATL_NO_VTABLE CMonikerClassFactory : 
	public ATL::CComObjectRootEx<ATL::CComMultiThreadModel>,
	public IParseDisplayName {
public:
	BEGIN_COM_MAP(CMonikerClassFactory)
		COM_INTERFACE_ENTRY(IParseDisplayName)
	END_COM_MAP()

	// Inherited via IParseDisplayName
	HRESULT __stdcall ParseDisplayName(IBindCtx* pbc, LPOLESTR pszDisplayName, ULONG* pchEaten, IMoniker** ppmkOut) override;
};

Just one method to implement:

HRESULT __stdcall CMonikerClassFactory::ParseDisplayName(
    IBindCtx* pbc, LPOLESTR pszDisplayName, 
    ULONG* pchEaten, IMoniker** ppmkOut) {
    auto colon = wcschr(pszDisplayName, L':');
    ATLASSERT(colon);
    if (colon == nullptr)
        return E_INVALIDARG;

    //
    // simplistic, assume all display name consumed
    //
    *pchEaten = (ULONG)wcslen(pszDisplayName);

    CComObject<CProcessMoniker>* pMon;
    auto hr = pMon->CreateInstance(&pMon);
    if (FAILED(hr))
        return hr;

    //
    // provide the process ID
    //
    pMon->m_DisplayName = colon + 1;
    pMon->AddRef();
    hr = pMon->QueryInterface(ppmkOut);
    pMon->Release();
    return hr;
}

First, the colon is searched for, as the display name looks like “process:xxxx”. The “xxxx” part is stored in the resulting moniker, created with CComObject<>, similarly to the CWinProcess earlier. The pchEaten value reports back how many characters were consumed – the moniker factory should parse as much as it understands, because moniker composition may be in play. Hopefully, I’ll discuss that in a future post.

Finally, registration must be added for the moniker. Here is ProcessMoniker.rgs, where the lower part was added to connect the “process” ProgId/moniker name to the CLSID of the process moniker:

HKCR
{
	NoRemove CLSID
	{
		ForceRemove {6ea3a80e-2936-43be-8725-2e95896da9a4} = s 'ProcessMoniker class'
		{
			InprocServer32 = s '%MODULE%'
			{
				val ThreadingModel = s 'Both'
			}
			TypeLib = s '{97a86fc5-ffef-4e80-88a0-fa3d1b438075}'
			Version = s '1.0'
		}
	}
	process = s 'Process Moniker Class'
	{
		CLSID = s '{6ea3a80e-2936-43be-8725-2e95896da9a4}'
	}
}

And that is it. Here is an example client that terminates a process given its ID:

void Kill(DWORD pid) {
	std::wstring displayName(L"process:");
	displayName += std::to_wstring(pid);
	BIND_OPTS opts{ sizeof(opts) };
	CComPtr<IWinProcess> spProcess;
	auto hr = ::CoGetObject(displayName.c_str(), &opts, 
		__uuidof(IWinProcess), reinterpret_cast<void**>(&spProcess));
	if (SUCCEEDED(hr)) {
		auto hr = spProcess->Terminate(1);
		if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
			printf("Process %u terminated.\n", pid);
		else
			printf("Error terminating process: hr=0x%X\n", hr);
	}
}

All the code can be found in this Github repo: zodiacon/MonikerFun: Demonstrating a simple moniker. (github.com)

Here is VBScript example (this works because WinProcess implements IDispatch):

set process = GetObject("process:25520")
MsgBox process.ImagePath

How about .NET or PowerShell? Here is Powershell:

PS> $p = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::BindToMoniker("process:25520")
PS> $p | Get-Member                                                                                             

   TypeName: System.__ComObject#{3ab0471f-2635-429d-95e9-f2baede2859e}

Name      MemberType Definition
----      ---------- ----------
Terminate Method     void Terminate (uint)
Id        Property   uint Id () {get}
ImagePath Property   string ImagePath () {get}


PS> $p.ImagePath
C:\Windows\System32\notepad.exe

The DisplayWindows function just displays names of Explorer windows obtained by using IShellWindows:

void DisplayWindows(IShellWindows* pShell) {
	long count = 0;
	pShell->get_Count(&count);
	for (long i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		CComPtr<IDispatch> spDisp;
		pShell->Item(CComVariant(i), &spDisp);
		CComQIPtr<IWebBrowserApp> spWin(spDisp);
		if (spWin) {
			CComBSTR name;
			spWin->get_LocationName(&name);
			printf("Name: %ws\n", name.m_str);
		}
	}
}

Happy Moniker day!

image-4

zodiacon

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