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Yesterday β€” 5 October 2022Pentest/Red Team

Vulnerable β‰  Exploitable: A lesson on prioritization

13 September 2022 at 15:17

The Typical Approach

Pen testers, vulnerability scanners, and installed agents alert on potential vulnerabilities and breaches. You receive a list, or a notification, and you respond. Ever wonder how much of your time and effort is being wasted fixing things that don’t actually matter?

You may be surprised to hear that a large majority of all vulnerabilities are unexploitable. According to data compiled by Kenna, in 2020, only 2.7% of the vulnerabilities found appeared to be exploitable and only 0.4% of those vulnerabilities were actually observed to be exploited at all.

The prioritization of these low-risk or no-risk vulnerabilities alongside, or even above, the truly exploitable vulnerabilities can actually cause an organization’s security posture to suffer. It takes significant time and coordination to find the asset owners, bring them up to speed on the issue, prepare downtime for the asset, remediate the issue, and then confirm that the issue is remediated. Meanwhile, more critical vulnerabilities are waiting in line for their turn to be remediated. If you can’t properly prioritize, you will never secure your network.

A client came to Horizon3.ai with the goal of validating the services they were using for pentesting, vulnerability scanning and remediation. Their IT services had all been outsourced to a managed security service provider (MSSP) with a hefty price tag; they wanted to make sure they were getting what they paid for.

The MSSP had just conducted their annual pentest of the organization’s network environment. Horizon3.ai used NodeZero to assess the organization’s network, with the following comparative results:

Why Coverage and Accuracy Matter

The hardest part of cyber security is deciding what NOT to fix because of limited time and resources.

Manual Pen Testing creates an incomplete snapshot:

  • No exploits exist, or conditions to exploit are extrememly unlikely, for 22/28 of the MSSP’s critical findings
  • Poor enumeration leads to blind spots and incomplete fingerprinting – port scans are not enough!
  • Partial coverage leads to missed critical findings

Fixing 79% of the critical issues highlighted in the MSSP’s report would have been an inefficient use of time and effort. These so-called β€œcritical issues” did not have exploits, were blindly assumed due to poor enumeration, or the conditions for exploitability were extremely unlikely.

Meanwhile, the MSSP’s team only identified one host vulnerable to BlueKeep, while NodeZero found an additional 11. NodeZero also proved three additional critical/high weaknesses, including easily guessable root access to a database server.

When the noise is removed, the critical findings are revealed.

The Horizon3.ai Difference

Thinking like an attacker gives you a distinct advantage as you devise a defensive strategy.

The attacker’s perspective asks:

  • What is an attacker interested in doing or achieving?
  • What methods are realistically at their disposal?
  • What things about your environment makes achieving their intentions possible, or even easy?

We believe that these questions can only be answered by an β€œattacker-mindset” pentest, which should be performed frequently on your entire environment so risks do not accrue, and should produce findings that guide your remediation actions with a heavy bias towards efficiency and return on investment.

Horizon3.ai delivers these outcomes through NodeZero, our autonomous penetration testing-as-a-service (APTaaS) platform. NodeZero is an on-demand, self-service platform that is safe to run in production and requires no persistent or credentialed agents.

Within our Portal, we provide the following supporting information for every weakness NodeZero finds:

  • Path NodeZero followed to identify/discover the weakness.
  • Proof of exploitability of the weakness.
  • Context and severity of the finding, which can be used to determine business impact.
  • Fix action report you can follow to remediate the weaknesses.

The Future State

Overall, the comparison between the MSSP’s report and the NodeZero report shows that NodeZero provides broader coverage, proves exploitability, contextualizes weaknesses, and provides the defensive team with the information they need to fix what matters.

Our work with this client exemplifies the need for a proactive security posture that includes continuous assessment, so you can catch up, keep up and even stay ahead.

Catch Up

Identify exploitable attack paths that must be fixed immediately, significantly reducing the opportunities for exploitation, sensitive data exposure, elevated privileges or remote code execution.

Your first NodeZero operation will provide this insight and minimize the time spent dealing with false positives.

For me, the biggest benefit is the attack path identification and actual prioritization of the vulnerabilities. Other tools simply pull the CVE value, and we get hundreds of criticals and highs.

Keep Up

Establish a purple team culture to find exploitable problems, fix them and then verify that the problems no longer exist. Your red team should be working with your blue team to maximize coordination.

You can run multiple NodeZero operations per week – our licenses give you unlimited access.
Use NodeZero’s compare feature to power your security standups.

Stay Ahead

Continuously verify your security controls – tools, processes, policies – by measuring and optimizing your detection, remediation and compliance response times.

Use our reports to show your leadership and board where you stand. Not just a compliance checkbox; this is effective security.

The post Vulnerable β‰  Exploitable: A lesson on prioritization appeared first on Horizon3.ai.

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