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Today — 7 July 2022Security News

North Korea-linked APTs use Maui Ransomware to target the Healthcare industry

7 July 2022 at 13:49

US authorities have issued a joint advisory warning of North Korea-linked APTs using Maui ransomware in attacks against the Healthcare sector.

The FBI, CISA, and the U.S. Treasury Department issued a joint advisory that warn of North-Korea-linked threat actors using Maui ransomware in attacks aimed at organizations in the Healthcare sector.

“The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) are releasing this joint Cybersecurity Advisory (CSA) to provide information on Maui ransomware, which has been used by North Korean state-sponsored cyber actors since at least May 2021 to target Healthcare and Public Health (HPH) Sector organizations.” reads the advisory published by US authorties.

The attacks against Healthcare and Public Health (HPH) Sector organizations started in May 2021 and government experts observed multiple cases that involved the use of the Maui ransomware.

The report provides information about tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) of the threat actors using the Maui ransomware along with indicators of compromise (IOCs) that were obtained by government experts during incident response activities and industry analysis of a Maui sample.

North Korean nation-state actors used Maui ransomware to encrypt servers providing healthcare services, including electronic health records services, diagnostics services, imaging services, and intranet services.

The report confirmed that In some cases, the attacks disrupted the services provided by the targeted HPH Sector organizations for prolonged periods.

The joint report refers to an industry analysis of a sample of Maui provided in Stairwell Threat Report: Maui Ransomware. According to the analysis, the malware appears to be human-operated ransomware.

This ransomware uses a combination of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), RSA, and XOR encryption to encrypt the files on the infected systems.

The FBI states that North Korea-linked threat actors are targeting healthcare organizations because they are critical infrastructure and the likelihood that they will pay ransoms is respected to be higher. Government experts believe that the attacks against healthcare organizations are likely to continue in the next years.

The joint report includes mitigations for ransomware attacks with a focus on the healthcare industry.

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Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, ransomware)

The post North Korea-linked APTs use Maui Ransomware to target the Healthcare industry appeared first on Security Affairs.

North Korean Maui Ransomware Actively Targeting U.S. Healthcare Organizations

7 July 2022 at 12:23
In a new joint cybersecurity advisory, U.S. cybersecurity and intelligence agencies have warned about the use of Maui ransomware by North Korean government-backed hackers to target the healthcare sector since at least May 2021. "North Korean state-sponsored cyber actors used Maui ransomware in these incidents to encrypt servers responsible for healthcare services—including electronic health

Over 1200 NPM Packages Found Involved in "CuteBoi" Cryptomining Campaign

7 July 2022 at 12:10
Researchers have disclosed a new large-scale cryptocurrency mining campaign targeting the NPM JavaScript package repository. The malicious activity, attributed to a software supply chain threat actor dubbed CuteBoi, involves an array of 1,283 rogue modules that were published in an automated fashion from over 1,000 different user accounts. "This was done using automation which includes the

ENISA released the Threat Landscape Methodology

7 July 2022 at 10:16

I’m proud to announce that the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity, ENISA, has released the Threat Landscape Methodology.

Policy makers, risk managers and information security practitioners need up-to-date and accurate information on the current threat landscape, supported by threat intelligence. The EU Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) Threat Landscape report has been published on an annual basis since 2013. The report uses publicly available data and provides an independent view on observed threat agents, trends and attack vectors.

ENISA aims at building on its expertise and enhancing this activity so that its stakeholders receive relevant and timely information for policy-creation, decision-making and applying security measures, as well as in increasing knowledge and information for specialised cybersecurity communities or for establishing a solid understanding of the cybersecurity challenges related to new technologies.

The added value of ENISA cyberthreat intelligence efforts lies in offering updated information on the dynamically changing cyberthreat landscape. These efforts support risk mitigation, promote situational awareness and proactively respond to future challenges.
Following the revised form of the ENISA Threat Landscape Report 2021, ENISA continues to further improve this flagship initiative.
ENISA seeks to provide targeted as well as general reports, recommendations, analyses and
other actions on future cybersecurity scenarios and threat landscapes, supported through a clear
and publicly available methodology.

By establishing the ENISA Cybersecurity Threat Landscape (CTL) methodology, the Agency
aims to set a baseline for the transparent and systematic delivery of horizontal, thematic, and
sectorial cybersecurity threat landscapes. The following threat landscapes could be considered
as examples.

  • Horizontal threat landscapes, such as the overarching ENISA Threat Landscape (ETL), a product which aims to cover holistically a wide-range of sectors and industries.
  • Thematic threat landscapes, such as the ENISA Supply Chain Threat Landscape, a product which focuses on a specific theme, but covers many sectors.
  • Sectorial threat landscape, such as the ENISA 5G Threat Landscape, focuses on a specific sector. A sectorial threat landscape provides more focused information for a particular constituent or target group.

Recognising the significance of systematically and methodologically reporting on the threat landscape, ENISA has set up an ad hoc Working Group on Cybersecurity Threat Landscapes2 (CTL WG) consisting of experts from European and international public and private sector entities.

The scope of the CTL WG is to advise ENISA in designing, updating and reviewing the methodology for creating threat landscapes, including the annual ENISA Threat Landscape (ETL) Report. The WG enables ENISA to interact with a broad range of stakeholders for the purpose of collecting input on a number of relevant aspects. The overall focus of the methodological framework involves the identification and definition of the process, methods, stakeholders and tools as well as the various elements that, content-wise, constitute the cyberthreat Landscape (CTL).

You can download the ENISA Threat Landscape Methodology here:

ENISA Threat Landscape Methodology

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Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, ENISA Threat Landscape Methodology)

The post ENISA released the Threat Landscape Methodology appeared first on Security Affairs.

Cisco and Fortinet Release Security Patches for Multiple Products

7 July 2022 at 09:51
Cisco on Wednesday rolled out patches for 10 security flaws spanning multiple products, one of which is rated Critical in severity and could be weaponized to conduct absolute path traversal attacks. The issues, tracked as CVE-2022-20812 and CVE-2022-20813, affect Cisco Expressway Series and Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server (VCS) and "could allow a remote attacker to overwrite

The Age of Collaborative Security: What Tens of Thousands of Machines Witness

7 July 2022 at 09:35
Disclaimer: This article is meant to give insight into cyber threats as seen by the community of users of CrowdSec. What can tens of thousands of machines tell us about illegal hacker activities? Do you remember that scene in Batman - The Dark Knight, where Batman uses a system that aggregates active sound data from countless mobile phones to create a meta sonar feed of what is going on at any

OrBit, a new sophisticated Linux malware still undetected

7 July 2022 at 09:34

Cybersecurity researchers warn of new malware, tracked as OrBit, which is a fully undetected Linux threat.

Cybersecurity researchers at Intezer have uncovered a new Linux malware, tracked as OrBit, that is still undetected.


The malware can be installed as a volatile implant either by achieving persistence on the compromised systems. The malware implements advanced evasion techniques and hooks key functions to maintain persistence on the infected systems. OrBit allows operators to achieve remote access capabilities over SSH, harvests credentials, and logs TTY commands.

“Once the malware is installed it will infect all of the running processes, including new processes, that are running on the machine.” reads the analysis published by the experts. “Unlike other threats that hijack shared libraries by modifying the environment variable LD_PRELOAD, this malware uses 2 different ways to load the malicious library. The first way is by adding the shared object to the configuration file that is used by the loader. The second way is by patching the binary of the loader itself so it will load the malicious shared object.”

Experts noticed similarities between the threat and the recently disclosed Symbiote malware which is designed to infect all of the running processes on the compromised machines.

Unlike Symiote that leverages the LD_PRELOAD environment variable to load the shared object, OrBit employs two different methods. In the first method, the shared object is added to the configuration file that is used by the loader, in the second one the binary of the loader is patched to load the malicious shared object.

The malicious payload is a shared object (.SO file) that can be placed either in persistent storage, for example /lib/libntpVnQE6mk/, or in shim-memory under /dev/shm/ldx/. Placing the payload in the first path will allow the threat to gain persistence, otherwise, it is volatile.

The backdoor hooks the read and write functions to log data that is being written by the executed processes on the infected machine.

The attack chain starts with an ELF dropper that extracts the payload (“libdl.so”) and adds it to the shared libraries that are loaded by the dynamic linker.

“The shared object hooks functions from 3 libraries: libc, libcap and Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM). Existing processes that use these functions will essentially use the modified functions, and new processes will be hooked with the malicious library as well, allowing the malware to infect the whole machine and harvest credentials, evade detection, gain persistence and provide remote access to the attackers.” continues the experts.

The experts pointed out that the malware outstands for its almost hermetic hooking of libraries. Linux threats continue to evolve, recently other sophisticated Linux malware were spotted by the researchers in the wild such as Symbiote and Syslogk.

“Threats that target Linux continue to evolve while successfully staying under the radar of security tools, now OrBit is one more example of how evasive and persistent new malware can be.” concludes the report.

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Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, OrBit)

The post OrBit, a new sophisticated Linux malware still undetected appeared first on Security Affairs.

OpenSSL version 3.0.5 fixes a flaw that could potentially lead to RCE

7 July 2022 at 07:50

The development team behind the OpenSSL project fixed a high-severity bug in the library that could potentially lead to remote code execution.

The maintainers of the OpenSSL project fixed a high-severity heap memory corruption issue, tracked as CVE-2022-2274, affecting the popular library.

This bug makes the RSA implementation with 2048 bit private keys incorrect on such machines and triggers a memory corruption during the computation. A remote attacker can exploit the memory corruption to achieve code execution on the machine while performing the computation.

The CVE-2022-2274 vulnerability was introduced in OpenSSL version 3.0.4 released on June 21, 2022.

“The OpenSSL 3.0.4 release introduced a serious bug in the RSA implementation for X86_64 CPUs supporting the AVX512IFMA instructions. This issue makes the RSA implementation with 2048 bit private keys incorrect on such machines and memory corruption will happen during the computation. As a consequence of the memory corruption an attacker may be able to trigger a remote code execution on the machine performing the computation.” reads the advisory published by the Project Maintainers. “SSL/TLS servers or other servers using 2048 bit RSA private keys running on machines supporting AVX512IFMA instructions of the X86_64 architecture are affected by this issue.”

OpenSSL CVE-2021-3711

The OpenSSL software library allows secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end. OpenSSL contains an open-source implementation of the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols.

The vulnerability was reported to project maintainers on 22nd June 2022 by Ph.D. student Xi Ruoyao who also developed the patch.

The flaw has been addressed with the release of OpenSSL version 3.0.5, users of the library have to upgrade their instances as soon as possible.

In June, the security expert Guido Vranken discovered a remote memory-corruption vulnerability in the OpenSSL version 3.0.4 which was released on June 21, 2022.

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, encryption)

The post OpenSSL version 3.0.5 fixes a flaw that could potentially lead to RCE appeared first on Security Affairs.

Researchers Warn of New OrBit Linux Malware That Hijacks Execution Flow

7 July 2022 at 06:35
Cybersecurity researchers have taken the wraps off a new and entirely undetected Linux threat dubbed OrBit, signally a growing trend of malware attacks geared towards the popular operating system. The malware gets its name from one of the filenames that's utilized to temporarily store the output of executed commands ("/tmp/.orbit"), according to cybersecurity firm Intezer. "It can be installed

Apple's New "Lockdown Mode" Protects iPhone, iPad, and Mac Against Spyware

7 July 2022 at 03:23
Apple on Wednesday announced it plans to introduce an enhanced security setting called Lockdown Mode in iOS 16, iPadOS 16, and macOS Ventura to safeguard high-risk users against "highly targeted cyberattacks." The "extreme, optional protection" feature, now available for preview in beta versions of its upcoming software, is designed to counter a surge in threats posed by private companies

Marriott International suffered a new data breach, attackers stole 20GB of data

6 July 2022 at 23:08

Hotel chain Marriott International suffered a new data breach, a threat actor has stolen 20GB from the company.

Hotel chain Marriott International confirmed it has suffered a new data breach after a threat actor stole 20GB of files from one of its properties.

The attacker compromised the network at the BWI Airport Marriott Maryland  (BWIA), as confirmed later by the company.

The threat actor told DataBreaches.net website that they had access to the Marriott property’s network about a month ago, they also added that the 0 GB of data exfiltrated included some credit card info and confidential information.


According to statements made to DataBreaches, the attackers also notified numerous employees at Marriot about the security breach. The company initially responded to them, but later interrupted any communication.

“This incident only involved one property. The threat actor did not gain access to Marriott’s core network. The access to one device at the property involved only lasted for approximately six hours,” a Marriott spokesperson told to media [1][2].

The threat actor attempted to extort Marriot by threatening to leak the stolen files, but the company refused to pay a ransom and notified the authorities.

Marriott also hired a leading cyber security firm to investigate the security breach.

“Marriott acknowledged that while most of the data acquired by GNN was what Marriott described as non-sensitive internal business files, they will be notifying approximately 300-400 individuals and any regulators, as required. They did not provide a full description as to what kinds of personal information were involved for the individuals being notified.” reported DataBreaches.

This isn’t the first incident suffered by Marriot, below is a list of some of the security breaches it was the victim of:

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Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, data breach)

The post Marriott International suffered a new data breach, attackers stole 20GB of data appeared first on Security Affairs.

Yesterday — 6 July 2022Security News

Cyberattacks against law enforcement are on the rise

6 July 2022 at 17:34

Experts observed an increase in malicious activity targeting law enforcement agencies at the beginning of Q2 2022.

Resecurity, a Los Angeles-based cybersecurity company protecting Fortune 500 companies worldwide, has registered an increase in malicious activity targeting law enforcement agencies at the beginning of Q2 2022. Threat actors are hacking email and other accounts which belong to police officers and their internal systems.

The emerging trend consists of threat actors sending fake subpoenas and EDR’s (Emergency Data Requests) to their victims from the hacked law enforcement email accounts. Using such capabilities, the threat actors are targeting major technology companies such as Apple, Facebook (Meta), Snapchat, and Discord are to name a few, to collect sensitive information about targets of interest. The replies received by the bad actors contain sensitive details which could/are being used for leverage extortion, or cyberespionage. Such incidents have become especially notable in cybercriminal group activities such as LAPSUS$ and Recursion Group.

Resecurity has been observing multiple Dark Web marketplaces where cybercriminals are monetizing their efforts by selling credentials belonging to police officers of various foreign countries (e-mails, VPNs, SSO, etc.). One example of an email account previously used to send fake EDR requests on behalf of the Bangladesh Police was recently covered in a Bloomberg article illustrating the risk of such tactics.

Based on experts’ opinion, one of the biggest concerns is the visible insecurity of the law enforcement IT infrastructure, such infrastructure creates significant risk to our society, not just in cyberspace but in real life too. Organized crime, terrorists and extremist groups may leverage such access for malicious purposes.

The trend is continuing to grow in popularity as more law enforcement organizations have been impacted by cyberattacks this month. Just recently, the Conti ransomware group claimed to attack the Intelligence Agency in Peru and leaked their data which created a significant precedent in the security community. DDOS Secrets – another notable group of threat actors, has released 285,635 leaked emails from Nauru Police.

conti ransomware Peru intel

The most typical scenarios involving attacks on law enforcement systems include:

  • Protest Activity (15%)
  • Unauthorized Access (25%)
  • Cyberespionage (40%)
  • Law Enforcement Systems and Applications Abuse (8%)
  • Data Theft (12%)

Based on the published research, such malicious activity is especially visible in countries of Latin America, South-East Asia, and offshore jurisdictions. Last year, Resecurity registered a targeted security incident related to one of the law enforcement organizations in the Middle East and its counterpart in the face of one of the international police organizations. 

“Sophisticated bad actors and APT groups are actively targeting law enforcement agencies worldwide. Traditional cybercriminals are also an important component in this process, as state-supported actors may be actively collaborating with them for further planned cyberattacks and targeted network intrusions. Investigation of such incidents is a complicated process due to the significant sensitivity involved” – said Christian Lees, CTO of Resecurity, Inc. 

Resecurity® is committed to protecting consumers and enterprises all over the globe, and is actively involved in public-private partnerships to share actionable cyber threat intelligence (CTI) with financial institutions, technology companies and law enforcement to ultimately minimize the risk of credentials being compromised and data breaches being executed.

For more details give a look at the original published on the Resecurity:


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Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, cybercrime)

The post Cyberattacks against law enforcement are on the rise appeared first on Security Affairs.

NIST Announces First Four Quantum-Resistant Cryptographic Algorithms

6 July 2022 at 17:19
The U.S. Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has chosen the first set of quantum-resistant encryption algorithms that are designed to "withstand the assault of a future quantum computer." The post-quantum cryptography (PQC) technologies include the CRYSTALS-Kyber algorithm for general encryption, and CRYSTALS-Dilithium, FALCON, and SPHINCS+ for digital

Less popular, but very effective, Red-Teaming Tool BRc4 used in attacks in the wild

6 July 2022 at 15:20

Threat actors are abusing legitimate adversary simulation software BRc4 in their campaigns to evade detection.

Researchers from Palo Alto Networks Unit 42 discovered that a sample uploaded to the VirusTotal database on May 19, 2022 and considered benign by almost all the antivirus, was containing a payload associated with Brute Ratel C4 (BRc4), a new red-teaming and adversarial attack simulation tool.

Unlike Cobalt strike beacons, BRc4 payloads are less popular, but with similar capabilities. The tool was specifically designed to avoid detection by security solutions such as endpoint detection and response (EDR) and antivirus (AV). Its effectiveness at doing so can clearly be witnessed by the aforementioned lack of detection across vendors on VirusTotal.

Brute Ratel is the most advanced Red Team & Adversary Simulation Software in the current C2 Market. It can not only emulate different stages of an attacker killchain, but also provide a systematic timeline and graph for each of the attacks executed to help the Security Operations Team validate the attacks and improve the internal defensive mechanisms.” reads the description of the tool on its website. “Brute Ratel comes prebuilt with several opsOpec features which can ease a Red Team’s task to focus more on the analytical part of an engagement instead of focusing or depending on Open source tools for post-exploitation. Brute Ratel is a post-exploitation C2 in the end and however does not provide exploit generation features like metasploit or vulnerability scanning features like Nessus, Acunetix or BurpSuite.”

The file was uploaded to VirusTotal on May 19, 2022, from Sri Lanka, it is named Roshan_CV.iso and poses as a curriculum vitae. Upon clicking on the ISO file, users are presented with an apparent harmless Word document, but after launching it the attack chain will start. An instance of the BRc4 is installed on the user’s machine and attempts to contact a remote server.

According to Unit42 experts, threat actors are spreading the ISO files via spear-phishing messages.


The delivery of packaged ISO files is typically sent via spear-phishing email campaigns, although it’s not clear if the same method was used to deliver the payload to the target environment.

The experts noticed that the composition of the ISO file, Roshan_CV.ISO, is highly compatible with TTPs associated with the Russia-linked APT29 group.

The Russia-linked APT29 group (aka SVRCozy Bear, and The Dukes) has been active since at least 2014, along with APT28 cyber espionage group was involved in the Democratic National Committee hack and the wave of attacks aimed at the 2016 US Presidential Elections. The group is suspected to be the threat actor that launched the SolarWinds supply chain attack.

“The composition of the ISO file, Roshan_CV.ISO, closely resembles that of other nation-state APT tradecraft. The following table shows a side-by-side comparison of Roshan_CV.ISO and that of a previously identified APT29 sample (Decret.ISO).” reads the analysis published by Palo Alto Networks.

The researchers also spotted a second sample that was uploaded to VirusTotal from Ukraine a day after the ​​Roshan_CV.ISO file was uploaded. The experts observed significant code overlaps of a module used to load BRc4 into memory. Further investigation allowed the researchers to discovere seven more BRc4 samples dating back to February 2021.

The analysis of the C2 server allowed the experts to identify a number of potential victims, including an Argentinian organization, an IP television provider providing North and South American content, and a major textile manufacturer in Mexico.

“The emergence of a new penetration testing and adversary emulation capability is significant. Yet more alarming is the effectiveness of BRc4 at defeating modern defensive EDR and AV detection capabilities.

“Over the past 2.5 years this tool has evolved from a part-time hobby to a full-time development project with a growing customer base. As this customer base has expanded into the hundreds, the tool has gained increased attention across the cybersecurity domain from both legitimate penetration testers as well as malicious cyber actors.” concludes the report. “The analysis of the two samples described in this blog, as well as the advanced tradecraft used to package these payloads, make it clear that malicious cyber actors have begun to adopt this capability.”

Follow me on Twitter: @securityaffairs and Facebook

Pierluigi Paganini

(SecurityAffairs – hacking, BRc4)

The post Less popular, but very effective, Red-Teaming Tool BRc4 used in attacks in the wild appeared first on Security Affairs.

OpenSSL Releases Patch for High-Severity Bug that Could Lead to RCE Attacks

6 July 2022 at 13:38
The maintainers of the OpenSSL project have released patches to address a high-severity bug in the cryptographic library that could potentially lead to remote code execution under certain scenarios. The issue, now assigned the identifier CVE-2022-2274, has been described as a case of heap memory corruption with RSA private key operation that was introduced in OpenSSL version 3.0.4 released on

Hackers Abusing BRc4 Red Team Penetration Tool in Attacks to Evade Detection

6 July 2022 at 12:28
Malicious actors have been observed abusing legitimate adversary simulation software in their attacks in an attempt to stay under the radar and evade detection. Palo Alto Networks Unit 42 said a malware sample uploaded to the VirusTotal database on May 19, 2022, contained a payload associated with Brute Ratel C4, a relatively new sophisticated toolkit "designed to avoid detection by endpoint
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